Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. One of the products (C4H2N2O4) of the decomposition of uric acid by nitric acid. When treated with alkalis it produces alloxanic acid. In contact with ammonia it produces purpurate of ammonia, identical with murexid, which with various mordants produces reds and purples on silk and wool. This was much used in 1855 and 1856, but was soon superseded by aniline colors.
- n. biochemistry An oxidation product of uric acid, 2,4,5,6(1H,3H)-pyrimidinetetrone, capable of inducing diabetes by destroying pancreatic tissue
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. (Chem.) An oxidation product of uric acid. It is of a pale reddish color, readily soluble in water or alcohol.
“And a by-product of this process is a chemical called alloxan that forms in the flour, which has been linked to failure of the pancreas, a failure to produce insulin and the development of type 2 diabetes.”
“Murexide is produced by the action of ammonia on alloxan, which is itself derived from the uric acid of guano by treatment with nitric acid, and was known nearly forty years back to stain the fingers and nails red.”
“Two of the named four bodies, adenine and guanine, belong to a group of chemical compounds which today are usually included under the name of alloxan derivatives or purine derivatives.”
“E. Fischer and L. Ach (_Berichte_, 1895, 28, p. 3135) have synthesized it from dimethyl alloxan, whilst W. Traube (_Berichte_, 1900, 33, p. 3435) has obtained it from 1.3 diamethyl 4.5 diamino 2.6 dioxypyrimidine.”
“On oxidation with nitric acid caffeine gives cholesterophane (dimethyl parabanic acid), but if chlorine water be used as the oxidant, then it yields monomethyl urea and dimethyl alloxan (E. Fischer).”
“When caffeine is carefully oxidized with chlorine, it yields dimethyl-alloxan and methyl-urea.”
“A grain or so is oxidized into reddish alloxan and alloxantin by carefuly evaporating with a few drops of strong nitric acid on a piece of porcelain.”
“Yamamoto K, Miyagawa JI, Tochino Y, Yamamori K, et al. (1997) Demonstration of two different processes of beta-cell regeneration in a new diabetic mouse model induced by selective perfusion of alloxan.”
“• The 'gas' coming out of the monitor represents two things: alloxan turns out to be a poison but also represents the maelstrom in this quote: "I am a normal man with a good memory who fell into a maelstrom and got out of it more by luck than by virtue, and who from that time on has preserved a certain curiosity about maelstroms large and small, metaphorical and actual.”
“• The silhouette is of Levi at his computer • The image on the computer is alloxan mentioned in the story Nitrogen in The Periodic Table, which is in the background.”
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