from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. A canker in the mouth of a hawk.
- v. To curl.
- v. To crease, wrinkle, to frown.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- intransitive v. To gather into or adorn with plaits, as a dress; to form wrinkles in or upon; to curl or frizzle, as the hair.
- intransitive v. To form wrinkles in the forehead; to manifest displeasure; to frown.
- n. A wrinkle, plait, or curl; a flounce; -- also, a frown.
- n. An affection in hawks, in which white spittle gathers about the hawk's bill.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- To fold or wrinkle.
- To curl or frizzle, as hair.
- To adorn with fringes, frills, or other ornaments of dress.
- To wrinkle the forehead; frown.
- n. A flounce, fold, plait, or frill, as of a garment; a wrinkle; a crease.
- n. A disease in hawks in which white spittle gathers about the bill.
- n. A disease in a horse's mouth in which a mass of pimples appears on the palate; the pimples themselves.
From Middle English frouncen, from Old French froncir "to wrinkle, frown", from Frankish *hrunkja "a wrinkle" from Proto-Germanic *hrunkijō, *hrunkitō (“fold, wrinkle”), from Proto-Indo-European *(s)ker- (“to turn, bend”). Akin to Old High German runza "fold, wrinkle, crease" (German Runzel "wrinkle"), Middle Dutch ronse "frown", Old Norse hrukka "wrinkle, crease" (Icelandic hrukka "wrinkle, crease, ruck"). More at ruck2. (Wiktionary)