from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. Variant of caliph.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. See calif.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
Sorry, no etymologies found.
Al-Rassan was the stronghold of the western Asharite faith until Ammar ibn Khairan killed the last khalif, splintering the land into feuding city-states.
In the south, the Asharites, who worship the stars, whose territory, Al-Rassan, used to be united under a khalif but is now fragmented into many independent city-states.
“Shawir hunna wa khalif hunna,” which may be translated:
The unpopular cause of the Beni-Umeyyah, who were detested for the murder of the grandsons of the Prophet under the second of their line, was lost in a single battle; and the death of Merwan, the last khalif of the race, was followed by the unsparing proscription of the whole family.
Abbasides; and when Al-Ala, the _wali_ of Africa, invaded Spain in order to re-establish the supremacy of the eastern khalif, the head of his unsuccessful general, thrown before the tent of Al-mansor at
Then came the hajibs or chamberlains, the sons of the vizirs, the freed slaves of the khalif, and the wakils or officers of his household.
Under various pretexts he destroyed or drove into exile, within a few years, all the princes of the blood, and others whose influence or station might have endangered the success of his projects, and concentrated in his own hands all the powers of the state; while the khalif, secluded from public view within his palace, was as completely
 Under the Arab dynasties of the east, the _vizir_ was exclusively an officer _of the pen_: and Makrizi expressly mentions that Bedr-al-Jemali, who became vizir to the Fatimite khalif Al-Mostanssor in 1074, was the first in whom _the sword and the pen_ were united.
The khalif An-nasir, whose prosperity in mundane affairs became proverbial, had only fourteen days of undisturbed enjoyment during a reign of fifty years, seven months, and three days.
To such utter helplessness was the khalif reduced,  that he was unable even to oppose the removal of the royal treasure fiom Cordova to a fortified palace which
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