Definitions
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License
 v. Present participle of overfit.
 n. The action of the verb overfit
Etymologies
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Examples

(As for Jeffrey's 1968/2008 presidential campaign parallel ... it's not a bad exercise, but in the main I think Jeffrey's "overfitting" the data too muchly.)

This is completely consistent with our understanding of MBH methods – a classic spurious regression of the bristlecones combined with massive "overfitting" from essentially white noise series in the calibration period, thus the breakdown of the crossvalidation R2.

The statistical issue that it turns over – and it’s something that isn’t considered anywhere in multivariate statistical literature – is what happens when you mix one “classical” univariate spurious regression with multivariate overfitting which is my model for MBH.

As in Brown’s multivariate calibration confidence formula, which takes this kind of overfitting large amount of responses into account in the uncertainties.

Then again you can do much worse than just using normal assumptions (maybe autochecking a few heavytailed/onesided/clever alternatives using some information criterion against overfitting) and churning on that. 95% of the result in 5% of the effort …

Avoiding that disaster — called overfitting — is a bit of an art; and being very good at it separates masters like BellKor from the rest of the field.

It's nonsense; any QSAR modeler can explain in details the dangers of overfitting, extrapolation, etc, etc.
"The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete"

If we move away from 50100 molecules in our QSAR training, but use 10k of chemically alike molecules, then our modeling approaches (if capable of handling the matrices) would have a much, much smaller chance for overfitting, extrapolation (there is much, much more interpolation now), etc.
"The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete"

The order would be constrained to a realizable result if and only if the reduction of scale could be contained somehow correctly in the “forcing” of the illposed boundary of the nonphysical, which could not by defintion be determined a priori, but with a nonphysical constraint must be post facto and will tend to suffer overfitting as one tries to determine the magnitude assuming one has the order of magnitude correct.

I observed the overfitting problems in a post here
ruzuzu commented on the word overfitting
"Did you by any chance mean overfishing?"
May 8, 2013
seanahan commented on the word overfitting
Did you read an article yesterday about overfitting? It's enough to make a person trained in statistics cry.
August 21, 2008
john commented on the word overfitting
"In statistics, overfitting is fitting a statistical model that has too many parameters. An absurd and false model may fit perfectly if the model has enough complexity by comparison to the amount of data available. Overfitting is generally recognized to be a violation of Occam's razor."
Wikipedia
August 20, 2008