American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- n. A nearly flat land surface representing an advanced stage of erosion.
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. In geology, a surface reduced by erosion nearly to the condition of a plain. There are many examples of once lofty mountains, now reduced to peneplains.
- To reduce by erosion to a peneplain.
- n. geology A low-relief plain representing the final stage of fluvial erosion during times of extended tectonic stability.
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. (Phys. Geog.) A land surface reduced by erosion to the general condition of a plain, but not wholly devoid of hills; a base-level plain.
- n. a more or less level land surface representing an advanced stage of erosion undisturbed by crustal movements
- pene- + plain (Wiktionary)
- pene-, almost (from Latin paene) + plain. (American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
“All the time, then, that the forces of the atmosphere are wearing down the surface of the earth to the sea level the sea is rising and its waves are producing a plain of marine denudation which rises slowly to meet the peneplain which is produced by degradation.”
“The Park comprises an interfluvial peneplain of schist and granite between the Comoé and Volta rivers, with a mean altitude of 250 m to 300 m and a series of ridges and granite inselbergs rising to 600 m.”
“The park comprises an ancient sloping granitic peneplain.”
“The Park forms the extreme peneplain extension of the old massif of Atakora.”
“The Park consists of a lateritic peneplain, with rock outcrops of quartz, schists and gneisses.”
“Tertiary soils in the peneplain are derived from gneiss and granitic rocks, while Quaternary sediments overlaying the bottom of broad U-shaped valleys such as Tucavaca Valley, which supports the taller forest.”
“It slopes southwest from the watershed between the Nile and Congo rivers, part of an ancient peneplain interrupted by mostly granitic inselbergs, threaded by gallery forests, with large marshland depressions.”
“One area within this ecoregion that has been well-studied is the level Casiquiare peneplain (lowland) in Venezuela which hosts a mosaic of forests, savannas, and other types of herbaceous vegetation.”
“This is best exemplified in the distribution of the freshwater fish fauna, where the lowland streams have the highest species richness, the second peneplain fewer, and the upper peneplain streams support a limited fish fauna.”
“The ecoregion also includes the Nova Scotia Highlands, which encompass the Cobequid Mountains to the west, Antigonish Highlands in the center, and the dissected Cape Breton hills in the northeast which are remnant of a Cretaceous peneplain surface, composed of Palaeozoic metamorphics and Proterozoic intrusives and volcanics.”
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