from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. A chemical group capable of selective light absorption resulting in the coloration of certain organic compounds.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. that part of the molecule of a dye responsible for its colour
- n. (more generally) the group of atoms in a molecule in which the electronic transition responsible for a given spectral band is located
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. Any chemical group or residue (as NO2; N2; or O2) which imparts some decided color to the compound of which it is an ingredient.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A chromophorous substance.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. the chemical group that gives color to a molecule
Sorry, no etymologies found.
These single - and double-cone sensitivities were estimated based on two assumptions: (1) the visual pigment λ max for each gene is the same for all species; and (2) the chromophore is A1 (11 - cis retinal) for all species.
Our first paper on Cypridina luciferin was published in 1957, although the chromophore structure of luciferin remained to be elucidated.
Before leaving Princeton, I elucidated the chromophore of GFP (Shimomura, 1979).
Dr. Roger Tsien of University of California, San Diego, engineered GFP by modifying the amino acid residues surrounding the chromophore, producing many different fluorescent proteins that emit various colors, from blue to red.
At that time, however, it was commonly believed that expressing the cDNA in living organisms would not produce fluorescent GFP, because the formation of its chromophore requires the reactions of condensation and dehydrogenation that are not expected to occur spontaneously.
In 1972, back at Princeton, we succeeded in determining the structure of AF350, a part of the aequorin chromophore.
If the disappearance of the jellyfish had occurred 20 years earlier, we wouldn't have been able to learn the mechanism of the aequorin bioluminescence reaction, as well as the chromophore of GFP.
[RT] And that's a strange paradoxical phenomenon because we discovered that almost any mutation of one amino acid right next to the chromophore will shift it to being all of one or all of the other – either all UV or all blue.
The third act of the GFP story began in 1994, when Roger Tsien explained how the chromophore of GFP can form spontaneously in the presence of oxygen and engineered a GFP variant with blue fluorescence, demonstrating that point mutations in the primary structure of GFP can modulate its fluorescence emission spectrum.
It was generally assumed that formation of its chromophore would require enzymes specific to A. victoria, but there was one GFP believer named Martin Chalfie who had a different view.