from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. A clitic that is attached to the end of another word. In Give 'em the works, the pronoun 'em is an enclitic.
- n. A clitic.
- adj. Of or relating to an enclitic or enclisis; forming an accentual unit with the preceding word.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. A clitic which phonetically joins with the preceding word. In English, the possessive 's is an example.
- adj. Affixed phonetically.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- adj. Affixed; subjoined; -- said of a word or particle which leans back upon the preceding word so as to become a part of it, and to lose its own independent accent, generally varying also the accent of the preceding word.
- n. A word which is joined to another so closely as to lose its proper accent, as the pronoun thee in prithee (pray thee).
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- Leaning on or against something else.
- In grammar, subjoined and accentually dependent: said of a word or particle which in regard to accent forms a part of a preceding word and is treated as if one with it, or gives up its separate accent, sometimes affecting that of its predecessor.
- In obstetrics, opposed to synclitic (which see).
- n. In grammar, a word accentually connected with a preceding word, as que (and) in Latin: arma virumque, arms and the man.
The "enclitic" neatly encapsulates Mosses thesis about the relations between originary languages and vernaculars, between primary languages and stranger idioms, between literary languages and invading languages, with "mixed jargons" and a changed "mother idiom" as a result.
No. 51; accent from "enclitic," § 3. 55. vii, 20. 56.
However, an enclitic accusative demonstrative may still precede or follow an unmarked object and this is probably the most direct indication that accusative nouns are simply unmarked in that case.
NB: Avamshâm is avam "him" plus -shâm, which is a dative 3rd person plural enclitic pronoun.
A characteristic trait of Danish and the rest of the Nordic languages is the presence of the enclitic definite article.
MIE enclitic *mas regularly becomes *n̥s via Syncope, and was then later extended analogically as *nos by the time of PIE proper.
A lovely analogy of such a thing is found in my native language Dutch; which has variant forms of most pronouns though they're all enclitic to the verb
So, like I said already, primary stress accent in Mid IE was much like in Polish and fell on the penultimate syllable (second-from-last syllable) by default unless a suffix was derived from an Old IE agglutinated enclitic in which case the antepenultimate (third-from-last syllable) was chosen.
Antepenultimate accentuation only ever surfaces in words with enclitic extensions like *-sa and *-ta.
In fact, Latin had many words that are translated into English as or, including, besides the two listed, at least seu, sive and the enclitic ve.