from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition.

  • noun A fallacious or illogical argument or conclusion.

from The Century Dictionary.

  • noun In logic, fallacious argument or false reasoning; reasoning which is false in form—that is, in which the conclusion does not follow from the premises; a conclusion unwarranted by the premises.

from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English.

  • noun (Logic) A reasoning which is false in point of form, that is, which is contrary to logical rules or formulæ; a formal fallacy, or pseudo-syllogism, in which the conclusion does not follow from the premises.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

  • noun A fallacious argument or illogical conclusion, especially one committed by mistake, or believed by the speaker to be logical.

from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.

  • noun an unintentionally invalid argument


from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

[Late Latin paralogismus, from Greek paralogismos, from paralogos, unreasonable : para-, beyond; see para– + logos, reason; see leg- in Indo-European roots.]

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

From Middle French paralogisme, form Latin paralogismus, from Ancient Greek παραλογισμός.


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  • There lurks in the procedure of rational Psychology a paralogism, which is represented in the following syllogism:

    The Critique of Pure Reason Immanuel Kant 1764

  • The attack on the third paralogism focuses on what can be inferred from unified consciousness over time.

    Kant's View of the Mind and Consciousness of Self Brook, Andrew 2008

  • A transcendental paralogism, according to Kant, is a “syllogism in which one is constrained, by a transcendental ground, to draw a formally invalid conclusion” (A341/B399).

    Kant's Critique of Metaphysics Grier, Michelle 2007

  • Kant, for example, argued for a dissociation here, in his famous critique of the third paralogism.

    The Unity of Consciousness Brook, Andrew 2006

  • Now, truly, this is the same paralogism: who says we are in the truth? others? no, ourselves.

    The Sermons of John Owen 1616-1683 1968

  • From the asserting of the authority and description of the duty of the magistrate, Rom. xiii., the argument is very easy that is produced for the suppressing by external force of erroneous persona The paralogism is so foul and notorious in this arguing -- "He is to suppress evil deeds; heresy is an evil deed: therefore that also" that it needs no confutation.

    The Sermons of John Owen 1616-1683 1968

  • This being considered, the occasion of a most frequent paralogism is removed.

    The Sermons of John Owen 1616-1683 1968

  • Wherefore, if any pretend, in the exercise of reason, to conclude unto any thing concerning the nature, being, or will of God, that is directly contradictory unto those principles and dictates, it is no divine revelation unto our reason, but a paralogism from the defect of reason in its exercise.

    Pneumatologia 1616-1683 1967

  • Pliny not to seek us out, but yet to punish us if we were known; — what a paralogism!

    The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume 14: Simony-Tournon 1840-1916 1913

  • The paralogism included in the very enunciation of the parallelist thesis is explained in a memoire presented to the Geneva

    A New Philosophy: Henri Bergson Edouard Louis Emmanuel Julien Le Roy 1912


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  • A piece of illogical or fallacious reasoning, esp. one that appears superficially logical or that the reasoner believes to be logical.

    February 1, 2008

  • There was a logician named Chisolm,

    An expert at paralogism

    Beset by the nemeses

    Of mistaken premises -

    Attracting extensive derision.

    April 2, 2019