from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- adj. before the time of Socrates
- n. any philosopher who lived before Socrates
Sorry, no etymologies found.
Heraclitus of Ephesus is pre-socratic and his main doctrine, called "mobilism" I think, is indeed about how things are always changing and becoming, part of a constant flux that makes it impossible to see them as fixed, definable objects.
A decisive step was reached with the thought on Inhabitation, which I think corresponds to the thinking Heidegger envisaged as that which would succeed his, viz. pre-socratic in feel if not in style, where poetic creation and philosophy become one and emphasis on the concept "world".
Many of the pre-socratic philosophers in fact had a concept of substance rather like that above attributed to chemistry: that is, their emphasis was on criterion (vi) above.
This may have been articulated as such earlier by someone else, but prior to Aristotle, there was a history of observation by the pre-socratic philosophers to substantiate understanding.
These pre-socratic philosophers are grouped in a timeline running from
I hesitate to call them “developments” because they haven’t changed in essence since pre-socratic Athens.
"science", and science as the process of performing experiments, reasoning, and trying to describe the laws which govern matter without invoking gods, comes from ionia, the milesians, and the pre-socratic philosophers.