Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. An elastic gummy substance, the inspissated juice of various tropical plants; caoutehoue; gum elastic. There are several plants which produce India-rubber: an Indian plant, Ficus elastica; several African plants of the genus Landolphia, the most important of which are L. Kirkii and L. Petersiana; and a Central American species, Castilloa elastica. Brazilian or Ceara rubber is the product of Manihot Glaziovii. The Para rubber is the product of several species of the genus Hevea, particularly H. Brasiliensis and H. Guianensis. Pure india-rubber is whitish, and in thin sheets is semi-transparent. Its specific gravity is given as 0.925; its density is not permanently increased by pressure. It is the most freely elastic of all known substances. Its elasticity may be removed by stretching it and placing it in this condition in cold water, but is regained by immersion in warm water. It yields to pressure in any direction, and returns instantly to its original form when the pressure is removed. Cold renders it hard and stiff, but never brittle. Heat makes it supple. It melts at a temperature of 248° F., partially decomposing, and forming a viscous mass which does not again become solid when cold. It vaporizes at 600° F. At a red heat it yields a gas at the rate of 30,000 cubic feet per ton, which has a high illuminating power. When ignited in contact with the air it burns freely, with a bright flame and a great deal of smoke. India-rubber dissolves in bisulphid of carbon, naphtha, benzol, washed ether, and chloroform, and in the oils of cajeput, lavender, sassafras, and in turpentine. An oily liquid which is an excellent solvent is obtained from the gum itself by exposing it to a temperature of 600° F. in a close vessel. When treated with sulphur, as in the process of vulcanizing, india-rubber becomes black and takes a horny consistence, retaining its elasticity even when cold, and is more easily worked, so that its value for many commercial purposes is greatly increased. Since the process of vulcanization was discovered (by Charles Goodyear in 1844), pure rubber is rarely used, the vulcanized or changed rubber being far preferable for almost every use.
- n. An overshoe made of india-rubber.
- n. alternative spelling of india rubber.
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. See Caoutchouc.
- See caoutchouc.
- n. caoutchouc. See Caoutchouc.
- n. an elastic material obtained from the latex sap of trees (especially trees of the genera Hevea and Ficus) that can be vulcanized and finished into a variety of products
“Of course you haven't, -- children never do: there's the spotted carpet-bag and the little blue band-box with your best bonnet, -- that's two; then the India rubber satchel is three; and my tape and needle box is four; and my band-box, five; and my collar-box; and that little hair trunk, seven.”
“India rubber plant from South America, there is the Luini in the chapel of San”
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