“Colon cancer in humans also underwent graded and discrete changes in its progression, from a noninvasive premalignant lesion called an adenoma to the highly invasive terminal stage called an invasive carcinoma.”
“Colon cancers were detected at earlier and earlier stages in their evolution, often in the premalignant state, and treated with relatively minor surgeries.”
“Decades before cervical cancer evolved into its fiercely invasive incarnation, whorls of noninvasive premalignant cells could be observed in the tissue, beginning their first steps in the grisly march toward cancer.”
“Suppose, moreover, that as the test enters the public domain, doctors immediately begin to detect early, benign-appearing, premalignant lesions—in stark contrast to the aggressive, fast-growing tumors seen before the test.”
“Instead, the shift from a premalignant state to an invasive cancer could precisely be correlated with the activation and inactivation of genes in a strict and stereotypical sequence.”
“Identifying and eradicating this premalignant stage before the cancer spreads is the basis for the Pap smear.”
“Unlike Frei, though, Canellos had turned from advocate to adversary of megadose chemo regimens, in part because he had been among the first to notice a devastating long-term side effect: as doses escalated, some chemotherapeutic drugs damaged the marrow so severely that, in time, these regimens could precipitate a premalignant syndrome called myelodysplasia, a condition that tended to progress to leukemia.”
“The pathologist determines if the cells he studied under the microscope are cancerous (malignant), precancerous (premalignant: at high risk of becoming cancerous), or benign (harmless).”
“What they found is that the president has adenomas and adenomas mean that it's a precancerous polyp or a premalignant polyp.”
“These abnormal cells are considered premalignant, but fortunately, they can be restored to normality by correcting the folic acid deficiency.”
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