from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. A hard silver-gray acid-resistant metallic element that is found in platinum ores and is used to harden platinum and palladium for jewelry and in alloys for nonmagnetic wear-resistant instrument pivots and electrical contacts. Atomic number 44; atomic weight 101.07; melting point 2,310°C; boiling point 3,900°C; specific gravity 12.41; valence 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. See Table at element.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. a metallic chemical element (symbol Ru) with an atomic number of 44.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. A rare element of the light platinum group, found associated with platinum ores, and isolated as a hard, brittle steel-gray metal which is very infusible. Symbol Ru. Atomic weight 103.5. Specific gravity 12.26. See Platinum metals, under platinum.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. Chemical symbol, Ru; atomic weight, 103.5 (Claus). A metal of the platinum group.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. a rare polyvalent metallic element of the platinum group; it is found associated with platinum
Electro-deposition using black rhodium or ruthenium is the first technique.
Many of our advances in ruthenium catalyst development were the result of applying the techniques developed earlier in our group in the study of other complex catalytic processes.
One of the best examples in recent years, tetracarbonly-diruthenium fulvalene, requires the use of ruthenium, which is rare and expensive.
This has led materials scientists to include yet more elements, such as ruthenium, or reduce the concentrations of others, such as chromium, in an attempt to control the formation of such phases.
If the catalyst is toxic, as it usually is when platinum-metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium are used, then it must be removed completely from the synthesized product using costly purification techniques.
Bismuth, used in lead-free solder, has doubled in price in two years, while the price of ruthenium, used in resistors and disc drives, has risen sevenfold in a year.
Ever heard of the ruthenium rush, the bismuth bonanza or the indium stampede?
The fibers are made from a polymer with ruthenium-based molecules using a complex technique called – electrospinning – when a small droplet of polymer solution is placed on a metal needle tip followed by application of a high voltage between the tip and gold electrodes in a silicon base placed a few millimeters away.
The fibers are made of a polymer spiked with ruthenium molecules in a process dubbed ‘electrospinning.’
We also developed early commercial sources and later commercially viable methods for the production of the well defined ruthenium based catalysts.
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