from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. The surgical transfer of cells, tissues, or especially whole organs from one species to another.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. The transplantation of biological or organic matter from a given species into a different one, especially when this matter has been altered (such as by genetic engineering)
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. a surgical procedure in which tissue or whole organs are transfered from one species to another species
They have kept pig lungs functioning with human blood, paving the way for animal-human transplants - called xenotransplantation - in as little as five years.
The hope, he believes, lies in xenotransplantation, essentially a process of growing organs from animals that are compatible with a recipient's immune system.
The early discussion of ethical issues raised by chimeras occurred under the heading of xenotransplantation, the use of non-human animals as a source of cells, tissues, or organs for transplantation into humans (Institute of Medicine 1996).
The possibility of a public health crisis arising from a transmissible infection crossing species boundaries, a significant concern with xenotransplantation, is greatly reduced when the source of the biological material is human and the recipient a non-human animal confined to a laboratory.
The main ethical problems included the health risks for the transplant recipient (e.g., a substantial risk of hyperacute rejection and graft-versus-host disease), traditional animal ethics issues, concerns about informed consent (complicated by empirical uncertainties and the possibility of legally mandated life-long health surveillance), fair allocation of health care resources, and the public health issue that xenotransplantation would allow viruses to jump the species barrier into humans.
We are displacing animal habitats, importing nonnative species when we move or migrate, feeding meat products to herbivores, dining on exotic predators, and experimenting with animal hybridization, xenotransplantation and precursors to bio-terrorism in a world made smaller by staggering advances in transportation and global commerce.
On a remote island in Lake Superior, scientists struggle to solve the problem of xenotransplantation -- using animal tissue to replace failing human organs.
Many scientists have called for a moratorium on xenotransplantation until such dangers have been overcome.
“That remains the principal anxiety associated with xenotransplantation,” said Warrens.
Mary Shelly advising on the safety of xenotransplantation.
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