Definitions
from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition.
 noun Biology A root or point of origin.
 noun Mathematics The base of a system of numbers, such as 2 in the binary system and 10 in the decimal system.
from The Century Dictionary.
 noun In astrology, the original figure of birth, the source of all judgments and predictions.
 noun The root of a plant: used chiefly with reference to the roots of medicinal plants or preparations from them.
 noun Hence The primary source or origin; that from which anything springs, or in which it originates.
 noun In etymology, a. primitive word or form from which spring other words; a radical; a root.
 noun In mathematics, a root.
 noun In zoöl, and anatomy, a root; a rooted or rootlike part; a radicle: as, the radix or root of a tooth; the radix of a nerve.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English.
 noun (Philol.) A primitive word, from which spring other words; a radical; a root; an etymon.
 noun rare, rare A number or quantity which is arbitrarily made the fundamental number of any system; a base. .
 noun (Alg.), rare A finite expression, from which a series is derived.
 noun (Bot.) The root of a plant.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License.
 noun A primitive word, from which other words spring.
 noun biology A
root  noun mathematics The number of
distinct symbols used to represent numbers in a particularbase , as 10 fordecimal .
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
 noun (numeration system) the positive integer that is equivalent to one in the next higher counting place
Etymologies
from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/ShareAlike License
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Examples

Berkeley, home of supposed radical thinkers (radical from the root in Latin "radix" meaning
East Bay Express editor@eastbayexpress.com 2010

Berkeley, home of supposed radical thinkers (radical from the root in Latin "radix" meaning
East Bay Express editor@eastbayexpress.com 2010

STANDARD FORM A numeral in standard powerof10 notation is written as follows: m: n Â 10z where the dot (.) is a period, written on the base line (not a raised dot indicating multiplication), and is called the radix point or decimal point.

True radicals are much rarer  after all, the word derives from radix, meaning root.
A thoughtful post (as usual) ... Frank Wilson 2006

The word radical derives from radix, meaning “root”.
New policy for antifeminist, men’s rights, and rightwing posters 2005

a fiew feet from an inundated Soil tho within it's limits it grows very closely. in short almost as much so as the bulbs will permit. the radix is a tumicated bulb, much the consistence Shape and appearance of the
The Journals of Lewis and Clark, 18041806 Meriwether Lewis 1791

The twenty is evidently a ligature of two tens, and this in turn suggested a kind of radix, so that ninety was probably written in a way reminding one of the quatrevingtdix of the French.
The HinduArabic Numerals David Eugene Smith 1902

'The Sulphate of Zinc' is valuable as an excitant to wounds, and promotes adhesion between divided surfaces and the 'radix'.
The Dog William Youatt 1811

The large fern, rise to the hight of 3 or 4 feet, the Stem is a Common footstalk or rib which proceeds imediately from the radix which is
The Journals of Lewis and Clark, 18041806 Meriwether Lewis 1791

a common footstalk or rib which proceeds immediately from the radix which is somewhat flat on two sides about the size of
Original journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 18041806 1904
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