American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- adj. Progressing from small or subordinate units to a larger or more important unit, as in an organization.
- adj. of, or relating to a hierarchical system that progresses from multiple, small subunits to a single, large basic unit
GNU Webster's 1913
- adj. (Computers) planning or building the smallest parts first. Opposite of
- adj. of an approach to a problem that begins with details and works up to the highest conceptual level
“Its decision-making approach was defined as a "bottom-up, consensus-driven, democratic manner," which seems to include so many advisory groups—including governments, registries, other nonprofits, companies and network security specialists—that no single interest group dominates.”
“These are supposed to be assessed in terms of their costs and benefits combined in business to indicate return on investment so that the general managers can assess each, compare and rank them, and accept only as many as the capital funding available for a given period will allow.11 Because of the impetus of the flow from unit managers to general managers, capital budgeting is sometimes referred to as bottom-up strategic planning.”
“There are probably two basic reasons why none of our cases of major change can be characterized as bottom-up.”
“Friedrich Hayek was, of course, the Nobel economist who pioneered work in what Ridley, in his acceptance lecture, called "bottom-up" economic and social development.”
“In the telling of the history of the West, “bottom-up” scholars replaced the silly romanticism of older historians with a far more intelligent and hardheaded narrative of American expansion.”
“Smart companies use both approaches and are adept at helping bottom-up innovation projects get the sponsorship they need to survive.”
“We wanted to find cases where dramatic changes had emerged through bottom-up initiatives.”
“There is a lot of enthusiasm among those writing about innovation, and among those working in R&D settings, for bottom-up activism or "intrapreneurship.”
“At bottom, Obama's smart-ass team decided to take on a highly emotional issue without putting serious effort into a communication strategy, bottom-up.”
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