American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- n. Logic A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion; for example, All humans are mortal, the major premise, I am a human, the minor premise, therefore, I am mortal, the conclusion.
- n. Reasoning from the general to the specific; deduction.
- n. A subtle or specious piece of reasoning.
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A logical formula consisting of two premises and a conclusion alleged to follow from them, in which a term contained in both premises disappears: but the truth of neither the premises nor the conclusion is necessarily asserted. This definition includes the modus ponens (which see, under
modus), the formula of which is that from the following from an antecedent of a consequent, together with the antecedent, follows the consequent. This depends upon two principles—first, the principle of identity, that anything follows from itself; and, secondly, the principle that to say that from A it follows that from B follows C is the same as to say that from A and B follows C. Under the former principle comes the formula that the following from an antecedent of a consequent follows from itself, and this, according to the second principle, is identical with the principle of the modus panens. But the syllogism is often restricted to those formula; which embody the nota notæ (or maxim, nota notæ est nota rei ipsius), which may be stated under the form—from the following of anything from a consequent follows the following of the same thing from the antecedent of that consequent. Under this form it is the principle of contraposition. The simplest possible of such syllogisms is like this: Enoch was a man; hence, since being mortal is a consequence of being a man, Enoch was mortal. All syllogisms except the modus ponens involve this principle. A syllogism which involves only this principle, and that in the simplest and directest manner, like the last example, is called a syllogism in Barbara. In such a syllogism the premise enunciating a general rule is called the major premise, while that which subsumes a case under that rule is called the minor premise. A syllogism whose cogency depends only upon what is within the domain of consciousness is called an explicatory (or analytic) syllogism. A syllogism which supposes (though only problematically) a generalizing character in nature is called an ampliative (or synthetic) syllogism. (See explicative inference(under inference), and induction, 5.) Analytic syllogisms are either necessary or probable. Necessary syllogisms are either non-relative or relative. Non-relative syllogisms are either categorical or hypothetical, but that is a trifling distinction. They are also either direct or indirect. A direct syllogism is one which applies the principle of contraposition in a direct and simple manner. An indirect syllogism is either minor or major. A minor indirect syllogism is one which from the major premise of a direct (or less indirect) syllogism and a consequence which would follow from its conclusion infers that the same consequence would follow from the minor premise. The following is an example; All men are mortal; but if Enoch and Elijah were mortal, the Bible errs; hence, if Enoch and Elijah were men, the Bible errs. A major indirect syllogism is one which from the minor premise of another syllogism and a consequence from the conclusion infers that the same thing would follow from the major premise. Example: All patriarchs are men; but if all patriarchs die, the Bible errs; hence, if all men die, the Bible errs. Such inversions may be much complicated: thus, No one translated is mortal; but if no mortals go to heaven, I am much mistaken; hence, if all who go to heaven are translated, I am much mistaken. To say that from a proposition it would follow that I err when I know I am right would amount to denying that proposition, and, conversely, to deny it positively would amount to saying that, if it were true, I should be wrong when I know I am right. A denial is thus the precise logical equivalent of that consequence. An indirect syllogism in which the contraposition involves such a consequence is said to be of the second or third figure, according as its indirection is of the minor or major kind. The fourth figure, admitted by some logicians, depends upon contraposition of the same sort, but more complicated, like the last example. The first figure comprises, in some sects of logic, the direct syllogism only; in others, the direct syllogisms together with those which are otherwise assigned to the fourth figure. (See figure, 9.) The names of the different varieties, called moods of syllogism, are given by Petrus Hispanus in these hexameters:
- n. Deductive or explicatory reasoning as opposed to induction and hypothesis: a use of the term which has been common since Aristotle.
- n. See the adjectives.
- n. logic An inference in which one proposition (the conclusion) follows necessarily from two other propositions, known as the premises.
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. (Logic) The regular logical form of every argument, consisting of three propositions, of which the first two are called the
premises, and the last, the conclusion. The conclusion necessarily follows from the premises; so that, if these are true, the conclusion must be true, and the argument amounts to demonstration.
- n. deductive reasoning in which a conclusion is derived from two premises
- From Old French silogisme ("syllogism"), from Latin syllogismus, from Ancient Greek συλλογισμός (syllogismos, "inference, conclusion"). (Wiktionary)
- Middle English silogisme, from Old French, from Latin syllogismus, from Greek sullogismos, from sullogizesthai, to infer : sun-, syn- + logizesthai, to count, reckon (from logos, reason). (American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
“Nonsense and faith (strange as the conjuction may seem) are the two supreme syblolic assertions of the turhtu that to draw out the souls of things with a syllogism is as impossible as to draw out Leviathan with a hook.”
“The biggest problem with your syllogism is the first two words of the first premise: "God is".”
“For the sake of those unacquainted with that art, it may not be improper to observe that the above argument is what they call a syllogism, and that a syllogism consists of three propositions.”
“But the human faculties are fortified by the art and practice of dialectics; the ten predicaments of Aristotle collect and methodize our ideas, 59 and his syllogism is the keenest weapon of dispute.”
“So your syllogism is that [biometric ID required for all US Citizens] = = [persons detained for lawful reasons being required to present ID as a check of citizenship]?”
“If you find that plausible, then it surely matters whether the antecedent condition in this little syllogism is actually true.”
“The Greeks have but one word, logos, for both speech and reason; not that they thought there was no speech without reason, but no reasoning without speech; and the act of reasoning they called syllogism; which signifieth summing up of the consequences of one saying to another.”
“I would not undertake to set up my humble judgment in controversy with many other men who have had far more experience than I in political life, but, I would like to say to this gathering of Toronto men, that my fifteen years 'experience has convinced me that that syllogism is false and erroneous.”
“B No, I mean that the premises don't grant the conclusion--putting it in the form of a syllogism was a way of demonstrating the lack of connection between the premises and the conclusion--I thought the syllogism was self-evidently faulty, but I guess I'll have to explain.”
“A syllogism is a deduction consisting of three sentences: two premises and a conclusion.”
These user-created lists contain the word ‘syllogism’.
A list of words that are odd or words that I have looked up.
These come from gamma meditation ,I think.
united; acting or considered together
I enjoy collecting words, for I have no fear of them ever running out.
Words I've come across & want to remember.
Just whatever words I might happen across in my wanderings that I find myself compelled to write down so that I remember to try to use them. Not necessarily unusual words, but worthwhile ones.
does what it says on the tin, and is severely needed.
Words to learn via rote repetition.
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