from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. A colorless crystalline amine, C8H11NO, found in mistletoe, putrefied animal tissue, certain cheeses, and ergot and also produced synthetically, used in medicine as a sympathomimetic agent.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. a phenolic amine, 4-hydroxy-phenethylamine, derived from the amino acid tyrosine, found in various foodstuffs and used as a sympathomimetic agent
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. amino acid derived from tyrosine; has a sympathomimetic action; found in chocolate and cola drinks and ripe cheese and beer
Foods such as aged cheeses, cured meats, tofu and draught beer all contain high levels of tyramine, which is usually broken down by MAO; inhibiting this process causes blood pressure to rise and has in the past led to fatal hypertension.
"But people who are prone to migraines often find that the amino acid tyramine, which is sometimes found in soy, citrus fruits, bananas, yogurt and nuts, can prompt a headache," said Merle Diamond, M.D., co-director of the Diamond Headache Clinic in Chicago.
Sir Henry's researches have involved a painstaking investigation of the pharmacology of ergot alkaloids and a study of the effects of incidental bases of a simpler nature, such as tyramine and histamine.
Food additives such as tyramine, monosodium glutamate (MSG) or nitrates.
In a retrospective study by Rabkin and associates, the most frequently occurring adverse effects included hypertensive reactions (some of these were due to inadvertent consumption of foods containing tyramine or concurrent use of catecholamine-containing drugs), orthostatic hypotension, hypomania, weight gain and sexual dysfunction. 2 In most cases adverse effects were controlled with dosage adjustments.
"Effect of tyramine in migraine; a double-blind study."
"Two controlled trials of tyramine in children with migraine."
The stuff in chocolate said to be pharmacologically significant — serotonin, tryptophan, phenylethylamine, tyramine and cannabinoids — exist in higher concentrations in other foods with less appeal than chocolate.
I am taking a MAO inhibitor drug and tyramine is to be avoided.
Migraines can be set off by foods containing tyramine, phenathylamine, monosodium glutamate, or sodium nitrate.
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