Definitions

from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  • n. A colorless crystalline amine, C8H11NO, found in mistletoe, putrefied animal tissue, certain cheeses, and ergot and also produced synthetically, used in medicine as a sympathomimetic agent.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

  • n. a phenolic amine, 4-hydroxy-phenethylamine, derived from the amino acid tyrosine, found in various foodstuffs and used as a sympathomimetic agent

from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.

  • n. amino acid derived from tyrosine; has a sympathomimetic action; found in chocolate and cola drinks and ripe cheese and beer

Etymologies

tyr(osine) + amine.
(American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)

Examples

  • Foods such as aged cheeses, cured meats, tofu and draught beer all contain high levels of tyramine, which is usually broken down by MAO; inhibiting this process causes blood pressure to rise and has in the past led to fatal hypertension.

  • "But people who are prone to migraines often find that the amino acid tyramine, which is sometimes found in soy, citrus fruits, bananas, yogurt and nuts, can prompt a headache," said Merle Diamond, M.D., co-director of the Diamond Headache Clinic in Chicago.

    coloradoan.com - Local News

  • Sir Henry's researches have involved a painstaking investigation of the pharmacology of ergot alkaloids and a study of the effects of incidental bases of a simpler nature, such as tyramine and histamine.

    Sir Henry Dale - Biography

  • Food additives such as tyramine, monosodium glutamate (MSG) or nitrates.

    Medlogs - Recent stories

  • In a retrospective study by Rabkin and associates, the most frequently occurring adverse effects included hypertensive reactions (some of these were due to inadvertent consumption of foods containing tyramine or concurrent use of catecholamine-containing drugs), orthostatic hypotension, hypomania, weight gain and sexual dysfunction. 2 In most cases adverse effects were controlled with dosage adjustments.

    Monamine Oxidase Inhibitors

  • "Effect of tyramine in migraine; a double-blind study."

    Leo Galland, M.D.: Food And Drink That Cause Headaches

  • "Two controlled trials of tyramine in children with migraine."

    Leo Galland, M.D.: Food And Drink That Cause Headaches

  • The stuff in chocolate said to be pharmacologically significant — serotonin, tryptophan, phenylethylamine, tyramine and cannabinoids — exist in higher concentrations in other foods with less appeal than chocolate.

    Chocolate Not Addictive, Researcher Says | Impact Lab

  • I am taking a MAO inhibitor drug and tyramine is to be avoided.

    6-Week Cure blog idea | The Blog of Michael R. Eades, M.D.

  • Migraines can be set off by foods containing tyramine, phenathylamine, monosodium glutamate, or sodium nitrate.

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Comments

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  • Typing in all caps?

    August 5, 2008

  • chevynova22003, if death is a side effect, what is the main effect?

    August 4, 2008

  • The reason for the interaction is that Nardil is a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor. MAO is necessary to break down tyramine, so inhibiting its action can cause tyramine levels to become dangerously high. Excessive levels of tyramine can result in a hypertensive crisis, that is, elevation of blood pressure to levels which are life-threatening.

    Put more succinctly:

    Nardil + Marmite =

    August 4, 2008

  • Whoa. No need to get so worked up! What's a little fatality between friends?

    August 4, 2008

  • IF YOU TAKE MEDICATION CALLED NARDIL
    I THINK YOU WILL WANT TO AVOID ALL TYRAMINE IN YOUR DIET THAT YOU CAN ,IT HAS THE MOST ADVERSE SIDE AFFECT
    DEATH....IF ENOUGH IS CONSUMED OR THE WRONG MEDICATION,,

    August 4, 2008

  • Maybe they should call it "nast-o" as a heads-up...

    July 23, 2008

  • I'm not joking, frogga! The banana peel, overripe fruits and marmite are the only things here I'm not so keen on. I haven't tried natto.

    Does tyramine have nutritional value, other than making food taste awesome?

    July 23, 2008

  • Bilby: try any good sushi restaurant. You probably knew that already. But don't try it if you're on liver medication.

    Or, you know, if you have any taste buds.

    July 23, 2008

  • yarb: don't forget to served spoiled fruit for dessert.

    July 23, 2008

  • Yum! I'm going to do a tyramine-themed dinner. Broad beans, sauerkraut, stinky cheese and black swiss sausage... *drools*

    July 22, 2008

  • I think I'd like to try natto. Description sounds like Indonesian taucho which I used to like. Hard to find in some of the places I've been living.

    July 22, 2008

  • You could also put in caps fermented bean curd--a.k.a. natto. *horks on frogapplause's behalf*

    July 22, 2008

  • I hope you're better now frogapplause. No one should miss aut on sauerkraut.

    July 22, 2008

  • It wasn't so bad, dontcry. Think about it... how hard would it be to give up eating BANANA PEEL and MARMITE?!

    July 22, 2008

  • That sucks...

    July 22, 2008

  • I know about tyramine because I had to avoid foods high in tyramine for a year. Tyramine is metabolized in the liver. If one is taking meds that already tax the liver (such as INH), all that extra tyramine makes the liver work even harder.

    July 22, 2008

  • High tyramine content foods include: aged cheeses (cheddar, camembert, emmenthaler, brie, stilton blue, gruyere, gouda, brick, bleu, roquefort, boursault, parmesan, romano, provolone, liederdranz, colby, edam), aged/dried/fermented/salted/smoked/pickled/processed meats and fish (includes bacon, summer sausage, liverwurst, hot dogs, corned beef, pepperoni, salami, bologna, ham, mortadella, pickled or dried herring), banana peel, beef and chicken liver (stored, not fresh), bouillon cubes, commercial gravies, concentrated yeast extracts (MARMITE), fava beans, Italian green beans, broad beans, fermented bean curd, homemade yeast-leavened bread, kim chee (Korean fermented cabbage), miso, orange pulp, overripe or spoiled fruits, packaged soups, red wine, sauerkraut, sherry, snow pea pods, sourdough bread, soy sauce, soya bean, soya bean paste, tap beer and ale, vermouth.

    *notice that I placed "marmite" in all CAPS.


    July 22, 2008

  • *singing*
    Chocolate and cola
    and ripecheese and bee-er
    these are some things that
    I hold oh so dee-ar..

    July 22, 2008

  • This sounds like the fun amino acid.

    July 22, 2008