American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- n. A gray-white or silvery brittle metallic element, occurring in several allotropic forms, found worldwide, especially in the ores pyrolusite and rhodochrosite and in nodules on the ocean floor. It is alloyed with steel to increase strength, hardness, wear resistance, and other properties and with other metals to form highly ferromagnetic materials. Atomic number 25; atomic weight 54.9380; melting point 1,244°C; boiling point 1,962°C; specific gravity 7.21 to 7.44; valence 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7. See Table at element.
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. Chemical symbol, Mn; atomic weight, 55. A metal having a remarkable affinity for, and in some respects a close resemblance to, iron, of which it is an extremely frequent associate. It differs from iron, however, in that it is not used at all by itself in the arts, although of great interest and importance as connected with the manufacture of iron, and as modifying by its presence in small quantity the character of the product obtained. The use of the black oxid of manganese for removing the coloring matters from glass was known to the ancients, and is mentioned by Pliny, but the nature of the material thus used was not understood until quite modern times. This ignorance was shown in the confusion of the oxid of manganese with the magnetic oxid of iron, the lodestone (Latin magnes and magnesius lapis), and the former was called
magnesiaby chemists in the middle ages, apparently in conformity with Pliny's idea of a dual (masculine and feminine) nature in some metals, manganese not having the attractive power of the magnet, and being on that account considered feminine. Other variants (in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries) of the name of the ore used by glass-makers were magnosia, mangadesum, and manganensis. After what we now call magnesia had received the name of magnesia alba, apparently from the idea that this substance was in some way related to the oxid of manganese, the latter began to be called magnesia nigra. From the middle of the eighteenth century the combinations of manganese were studied by various chemists, and finally, in 1774, the metal manganese was isolated by Gahn, but for years there was much confusion in regard to its specific name, and it was not until after the beginning of the present century that the name manganese (mangan in German) began to be generally adopted. The Latin termination in -um (manganesium) is rarely used in modern technical works. This metal has never been found native. As eliminated from its ores by chemical processes, it is grayish-white in color, resembling cast-iron, but varying considerably in hardness and luster according to the nature of the methods by which it was obtained. It is very hard and brittle, and has a specific gravity of about 8. It oxidizes rapidly on exposure to the air. Manganese resembles iron in that its ores are widely diffused, and differs from that metal remarkably in the fact that, on the whole, its ores are only rarely found in considerable quantity in any one locality, while those of iron exist in abundance in many regions. The important ores of manganese are all oxids, and of these the peroxid (pyrolusite), called in commerce the black oxid of manganese, or simply manganese, is the most valuable and important. Other manganiferous minerals (all oxids) are braunite, hausmannite, psilomelane, and various earthy mixtures called bog-manganese, wad, cupreous manganese, etc. Practically, the ore called manganesein commerce is a mixture of various oxids, different samples differing greatly in value, which value has to be determined by chemical analysis. The ores and salts of manganese are of very considerable importance in chemical manufactures, both as bleaching and oxidizing reagents. The nature and importance of this metal in the manufacture of iron and steel will be found indicated under steel and spiegel.
- n. A metallic chemical element (symbol Mn) with an atomic number of 25.
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. (Chem.) An element obtained by reduction of its oxide, as a hard, grayish white metal, fusible with difficulty (melting point 1244° C), but easily oxidized. Its ores occur abundantly in nature as the minerals pyrolusite, manganite, etc. Symbol Mn. Atomic number 25; Atomic weight 54.938 [C=12.011].
- n. a hard brittle grey polyvalent metallic element that resembles iron but is not magnetic; used in making steel; occurs in many minerals
- French manganèse, from Italian manganese, by alteration from Latin magnesia, magnesia, from Ancient Greek μαγνησία (magnēsia), after Μαγνησία (Magnēsia), Magnesia (Wiktionary)
- French manganèse, from Italian manganese, from Medieval Latin magnēsia, mineral ingredient of the philosophers' stone; see magnesia. (American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
“Bronze again is improved by the presence of manganese in small quantity, and various grades of _manganese bronze_, in some of which there is little or no tin but a considerable percentage of zinc, are extensively used in mechanical engineering.”
“The word manganese comes from the Latin word magnes which means magnet.”
“A spokesman for the company, Mark Petrarca, says its emissions reports are accurate but that its manganese is trapped in flakes that usually fall to the shop floor and are moved off the site.”
“Mineral Resources Ltd has entered into a long-term manganese sales deal with China's largest Baosteel and flagged possible further deals in future. manganese ore will be sold in both lump and fines form and will come from Mineral Resources said the deal cemented an existing relationship between it and”
“MINING services and processing firm Mineral Resources Ltd has entered into a long-term manganese sales deal with China's largest steel maker Baosteel and flagged possible further deals in future.”
“Sigabi said inhaled manganese fumes or dust primarily affected the central nervous system, while high concentrations would cause flu-like illnesses referred to as manganese pneumonitis.”
“These nodules are mostly manganese and so are called manganese nodules.”
“The paints are made from the clay or from crushed manganese, which is also mined locally.”
“The carbonate forms the mineral known as manganese spar.”
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