from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. Factual or realistic representation, especially:
- n. The practice of describing precisely the actual circumstances of human life in literature.
- n. The practice of reproducing subjects as precisely as possible in the visual arts.
- n. A movement or school advocating such precise representation.
- n. The principles and methods of such a movement or of its adherents.
- n. Philosophy The system of thought holding that all phenomena can be explained in terms of natural causes and laws.
- n. Theology The doctrine that all religious truths are derived from nature and natural causes and not from revelation.
- n. Conduct or thought prompted by natural desires or instincts.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. A state of nature; conformity to nature.
- n. Metaphaphoric: The doctrine that denies a supernatural agency in the miracles and revelations recorded in the Bible, and in spiritual influences
- n. Any system of philosophy which refers the phenomena of nature as a blind force or forces acting necessarily or according to fixed laws, excluding origination or direction by a will.
- n. A doctrine which denies a strong separation between scientific and philosophic methodologies and/or topics
- n. A movement in theatre, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment.
- n. naturism, social nudity.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. A state of nature; conformity to nature.
- n. The doctrine of those who deny a supernatural agency in the miracles and revelations recorded in the Bible, and in spiritual influences; also, any system of philosophy which refers the phenomena of nature to a blind force or forces acting necessarily or according to fixed laws, excluding origination or direction by one intelligent will.
- n. The theory that art or literature should conform to nature; realism; also, the quality, rendering, or expression of art or literature executed according to this theory.
- n. The principles and characteristics professed or represented by a 19th-century school of realistic writers, notably by Zola and Maupassant, who aimed to give a literal transcription of reality, and laid special stress on the analytic study of character, and on the scientific and experimental nature of their observation of life.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A state of nature; uncivilized or unregenerate condition.
- n. Conformity to nature or to reality; a close adherence to nature in the arts of painting, sculpture, poetry, etc.: opposed to idealism, and implying less of crudeness than realism.
- n. Specifically, in the fine arts, the rendering of nature, as it is, by the arts of design, but without either slavish fidelity or attempt at illusion. It is the mean between idealism and realism.
- n. In philosophy, that view of the world, and especially of man and human history and society, which takes account only of natural (as distinguished from supernatural) elements and forces.
- n. In theology:
- n. The doctrine that natural religion is sufficient for salvation.
- n. The doctrine that all religious truth is derived from a study of nature without any supernatural revelation, and that all religious life is a natural development unaided by supernatural influences.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. (philosophy) the doctrine that the world can be understood in scientific terms without recourse to spiritual or supernatural explanations
- n. an artistic movement in 19th century France; artists and writers strove for detailed realistic and factual description
With the help of a couple of fairly obvious premises, epistemological naturalism also implies naturalism1, and I'll use ˜naturalism™ to refer to the disjunction of the three versions of naturalism sketched.
The term naturalism by no means fits James Branch Cabell, who has laid the scene of much of his invention in medieval Europe and who at many points seems incorrigibly romantic; and yet a temper so ironical and so unconventional sets him widely apart from the rococo romancers of the years during which he commenced to write.
Now, with this selfish individualism which we call naturalism we shall have much to do, for it plays an increasing rôle in the modern world; it is the neo-paganism which we may see spreading about us.
Even if you want me to stipulate that "naturalism" is also a god being put into that gap, that's still no help: that just makes ID as bad as you say naturalism is.
For (then as now) naturalism is not an empirical or scientific thesis at all, but a purely philosophical one.
For example, an article I wrote on AMERICAN PSYCHO for EXCAVATIO, the journal of the Emile Zola Society and research in naturalism, used many comparisons to the work of Jack London, especially BURNING DAYLIGHT.
But I - as I said earlier, I think naturalism is a faith-based system.
And that's because I think naturalism is a belief system.
It's a belief system, because the foundation of naturalism is such that we have to believe that we can find the truth.
However, methodological naturalism is a valid rule-of-thumb.