from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. Anatomy The outer layer of an internal organ or body structure, as of the kidney or adrenal gland.
- n. Anatomy The outer layer of gray matter that covers the surface of the cerebral hemisphere.
- n. Botany The region of tissue in a root or stem lying between the epidermis and the vascular tissue.
- n. An external layer, such as bark or rind.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. The outer layer of an internal organ or body structure, such as the kidney or the brain.
- n. The tissue of a stem or root that lies inward from the epidermis, but exterior to the vascular tissue.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. Bark, as of a tree; hence, an outer covering.
- n. Bark; rind; specifically, cinchona bark.
- n. The outer or superficial part of an organ.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. In botany: Bark, as of a tree. See bark.
- n. In Chara and some algæ, a covering of tubular or other cells inclosing the axis; in lichens, the cortical layer (which see, under cortical).
- n. Specifically, in medicine, Peruvian bark.
- n. In anatomy and zoology, some part or structure likened to bark or rind; cortical substance: as, the coriex of the brain.
- n. The peridium of fungi.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. the layer of unmyelinated neurons (the grey matter) forming the cortex of the cerebrum
- n. the tissue forming the outer layer of an organ or structure in plant or animal
- n. the tissue that surrounds the lens nucleus
Assuming their cerebral cortex is still intact and functioning.
The extension and orientation of dendrites of the Purkinje cells provided a key for the understanding of how the cerebellar cortex is built up and works (the same could be stated for all other structures of the brain, in which how neuronal processes are arranged is the prerequisite for their functioning).
The 'impact' of the knowledge of the cell architecture and the orientation of its dendrites on the clarification of the structure and function of the cerebellar cortex is explained in this drawing of the cerebellar cortex (D).
The frontal cortex is cream and pale green, the visual cortex a mix of blue, purple and turquoise while the hippocampus is made up of baby pink wool.
In a newly funded five-year project, the John Hopkins researchers will be trying to identify precisely what aberrant pattern of neural activity in the auditory cortex is associated with the onset of tinnitus, monitoring over-all brain activity in tinnitus sufferers, and experimenting with the compounds that might be able to suppress the condition.
The visual cortex is being cued, at a subliminal but pervasive level, that what is being seen is real.
And the prefrontal cortex is even more involved in detecting novelty, like the unexpected photographs, he said.
Yet, the prefrontal cortex is not functioning as efficiently as it should be.
Dr Daniel Weinberger, from the US National Institute for Mental Health, said: Our results raise the question of whether a gene variant favoured by evolution, that would normally confer advantage, may translate into a disadvantage if the prefrontal cortex is impaired, as in schizophrenia.
Egnor may very well know how various functional capacities are arranged in the brain (i.e. knows what not to chop or drill, etc), but I doubt he'd be able to offer a good explanation of "why motor cortex is here next to X" whereas an evolutionary explanation, drawing on ancestral relationships, would fair better.