from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  • conj. Used after a comparative adjective or adverb to introduce the second element or clause of an unequal comparison: She is a better athlete than I.
  • conj. Used to introduce the second element after certain words indicating difference: He draws quite differently than she does.
  • conj. When. Used especially after hardly and scarcely: I had scarcely walked in the door than the commotion started.
  • prep. Usage Problem In comparison or contrast with: could run faster than him; outclassed everyone other than her.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

  • conj. (usually used with for) Because; for.
  • conj. Used in comparisons, to introduce the basis of comparison.
  • prep. introduces a comparison, and is associated with comparatives, and with words such as more, less, and fewer. Typically, it seeks to measure the force of an adjective or similar description between two predicates.
  • adv. At that time; then.

from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • adv. Then. See then.
  • conj. A particle expressing comparison, used after certain adjectives and adverbs which express comparison or diversity, as more, better, other, otherwise, and the like. It is usually followed by the object compared in the nominative case. Sometimes, however, the object compared is placed in the objective case, and than is then considered by some grammarians as a preposition. Sometimes the object is expressed in a sentence, usually introduced by that.

from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • At that time; then. See then.
  • A particle used after comparatives, and certain words which express comparison or diversity, such as more, better, other, otherwise, rather, else, etc., and introducing the second member of a comparison.
  • Sometimes the preceding comparative is left to be inferred from the context; sometimes it is omitted from mere carelessness. A noun or a pronoun after than has a show of analogy with one governed by a preposition, and is sometimes blunderingly put in the objective case even when properly of subjective value: as, none knew better than him. Even Milton says than whom, and this is more usual: for example, than whom there is none better.


from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

Middle English, from Old English thanne, than.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

From Middle English than, thanne, from Old English þanne, a variant of þonne ("then, since, because"), from Proto-Germanic *þana (“at that, at that time, then”). Cognate with Dutch dan ("than"), German denn ("than"), German dann ("then"). More at then.



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  • This semester has finally reached its end so that since yesterday afternoon I have more time to read stuff, watch stuff and hopefully reorganize a few of my lists. And hardly had I commenced my reading of The Dead by James Joyce when I came across this utterly discombobulating sentence:

    Hardly had she brought one gentleman into the little pantry behind the office on the ground floor and helped him off with his overcoat than the wheezy hall-door bell clanged again and she had to scamper along the bare hallway to let in another guest.�?

    A quick search across the Internets only resulted in this hardly thrilling reinforcement of my intuitive grasp on that construction.

    But it's Joyce, James Joyce! ;-)

    What am I missing?

    July 18, 2009