from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. Detailed, precise description of a place or region.
- n. Graphic representation of the surface features of a place or region on a map, indicating their relative positions and elevations.
- n. A description or an analysis of a structured entity, showing the relations among its components: In the topography of the economy, several depressed areas are revealed.
- n. The surface features of a place or region.
- n. The surface features of an object: The topography of a crystal.
- n. The surveying of the features of a place or region.
- n. The study or description of an anatomical region or part.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. a precise description of a place
- n. a detailed graphic representation of the surface features of a place or object
- n. the features themselves (the terrain)
- n. the surveying of the features
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. The description of a particular place, town, manor, parish, or tract of land; especially, the exact and scientific delineation and description in minute detail of any place or region.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. The detailed description of a particular locality, as a city, town, estate, parish, or tract of land; the detailed description of any region, including its cities, towns, villages, castles, etc.
- n. The features of a region or locality collectively: as, the topography of a place.
- n. In surveying, the delineation of the features, natural and artificial, of a country or a locality.
- n. In anatomy, regional anatomy; the mapping of the surface of the body with reference to the parts and organs lying beneath such divisions of the surface, or the bounding of any part of the body by anatomical landmarks.
- n. In zoology, the determination of those different parts of the surface of an animal which may be conveniently recognized by name, for the purpose of ordinary description of specimens: as, the topography of a bird, a crab, an insect.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. precise detailed study of the surface features of a region
- n. the configuration of a surface and the relations among its man-made and natural features
So no, topography is not an excuse, but without tens of billions of dollars in additional transit tunnels, we will have an exceedingly hard time matching San Fransico's numbers
Is it possible that Copenhagen's topography is quite flat?
Chile's topography is an upside-down version of the West Coast of North America (with a little less flat land) -- one of the wealthiest places on Earth.
This organizational strategy for the house sought to register the difference in topography within the parcel by organizing a series of terraces that configure the framework for a landscape with differentiated characters.
Michoacán's topography is ideal for the professional and amateur spelunker.
The park extends along the foothills of the Serranía del Darién and the topography is gently undulating.
I don't know that the topography is too terribly common for a major metro area, but, giving you that one for the moment, I'm guessing that the subsurface geology: advance sands and clays compacted to a near-impervious condition (but, something that breaks apart, unlike rock) from glaciers overlain by recessional outwash as those glaciers retreated, not too many metropolitan areas come to mind.
The topography is steep on the high peaks, with flat and undulating portions on the tablelands interrupted by deep valleys with a more temperate climate.
But in south Lebanon, where the topography is in places more similar to the rolling, verdant hills of Gloucestershire and Somerset (not for nothing is the area known as "Little England"), the man-portable anti-tank weapon comes into its own.
Interestingly, the Parthenon, which occupies a special place in the text's discursive topography, is a site that conflates Athenian nationalism and imperialism.