from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. The state or quality of being turbulent: times of turbulence and confusion.
- n. Turbulent flow.
- n. An eddying motion of the atmosphere that interrupts the flow of wind.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. The state or fact of being turbulent or agitated; tempestuousness, disturbance.
- n. Disturbance in a gas or fluid, characterized by evidence of internal motion or unrest.
- n. Specifically, a state of agitation or disturbance in the air which is disruptive to an aircraft.
- n. An instance or type of such state or disturbance.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. The quality or state of being turbulent; a disturbed state; tumult; disorder; agitation.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. The state or character of being turbulent; a disturbed state; tumultuousness; agitation; disorder; commotion; refractoriness; insubordination.
- n. Syn. Tumult, riot, sedition, mutiny, insurrection.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. a state of violent disturbance and disorder (as in politics or social conditions generally)
- n. instability in the atmosphere
- n. unstable flow of a liquid or gas
Sorry, no etymologies found.
The strong distortion of laser fields in turbulence is due in large part to the coherent nature of a laser beam, which means that phase distortions in the laser field result in interference of the beam with itself and large fluctuations in the beam intensity.
Claire McCaskill is returning the private jet she used taxpayer dollars to fly, prompting roughly 432,481,021 pun-tastic articles using the word "turbulence."
"They aim to protect assets rather than chase returns, so short-term turbulence has less of an effect," says Anders Nordheim , Eurosif's head of research.
More Chart: The IMF's New Projections IMF Meetings Focus on Currency Moves Renewed turbulence from the sovereign-debt crisis has the potential of "inflicting major damage on the recovery," a risk elevated by the mountainous wall of around $4 trillion in debt that has to be refinanced over the next two years.
Whenever you believe that the present state of turbulence is destined to become a permanent condition, trouble brews.
The early work in turbulence modeling in the fluid dynamics community is an instructive case study as well (model parameters that were originally thought to be universally valid turned out to depend on the type of flow, but experimental results were limited early on).
Another example of a creative way to avoid economic turbulence is the exchange of technology among manufacturers practicing pricing-down-the-learning-curve strategies.
This suggests his latest recommendation is tactical in nature, and geared toward locking in profits and avoiding the risks of short-term turbulence in the exchange rate.
Specifically, the dimples create drag due to a delayed separation layer, and hence less turbulence behind the ball. (some studies say the turbulence is made smaller, and is thus reduced.)
The Eureka itself was to do with how bubbles behave acoustically when fragmenting in turbulence (for example underneath a breaking wave).