from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  • transitive v. To cause to be unable to think with clarity or act with intelligence or understanding; throw off.
  • transitive v. To cause to feel embarrassment.
  • transitive v. To mistake (for another): confused effusiveness with affection.
  • transitive v. To make opaque; blur: "The old labels ... confuse debate instead of clarifying it” ( Christopher Lasch).
  • transitive v. To assemble without order or sense; jumble.
  • transitive v. Archaic To bring to ruination.
  • intransitive v. To make something unclear or incomprehensible: a new tax code that only further confuses.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

  • v. To thoroughly mix; to confound; to disorder.
  • v. To rout; discomfit.
  • v. To mix up; to puzzle; to bewilder.
  • v. To make uneasy and ashamed; to embarrass.
  • v. To mistake one thing for another.

from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • adj. Mixed; confounded.
  • transitive v. To mix or blend so that things can not be distinguished; to jumble together; to confound; to render indistinct or obscure; ; to confuse one's vision.
  • transitive v. To perplex; to disconcert; to abash; to cause to lose self-possession.

from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • To mingle together, as two or more things, ideas, etc., which are properly separate and distinct; combine without order or clearness; throw together indiscriminately; derange; disorder; jumble.
  • To perplex or derange the mind or ideas of; embarrass; disconcert; bewilder; confound.
  • To fuse together; blend into one.
  • To take one idea or thing for another.
  • To become mixed up; become involved.
  • Mixed; confused: as, “a confuse cry,”
  • Perplexed; confounded; disconcerted.

from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.

  • v. assemble without order or sense
  • v. make unclear, indistinct, or blurred
  • v. cause to feel embarrassment
  • v. be confusing or perplexing to; cause to be unable to think clearly
  • v. mistake one thing for another


Middle English confusen, from Old French confus, perplexed, from Latin cōnfūsus, past participle of cōnfundere, to mix together; see confound.
(American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
Back formation from Middle English confused ("frustrated, ruined"), from Anglo-Norman confus, from Latin confusus, past participle of confundō. (Wiktionary)



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