from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  • transitive v. To cause to become confused or perplexed. See Synonyms at puzzle.
  • transitive v. To fail to distinguish; mix up: confound fiction and fact.
  • transitive v. To make (something bad) worse: Do not confound the problem by losing your temper.
  • transitive v. To cause to be ashamed; abash: an invention that confounded the skeptics.
  • transitive v. To damn.
  • transitive v. To frustrate: trivial demands that confounded the peace talks.
  • transitive v. Archaic To bring to ruination.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

  • v. To confuse; to mix up; to puzzle.
  • v. To fail to see the difference; to mix up; to confuse right and wrong.
  • v. To make something worse.
  • v. To cause to be ashamed; to abash.
  • v. To defeat, to frustrate, to thwart.
  • v. To damn (a mild oath).
  • v. To bring to ruination.
  • v. To stun, amaze
  • n. a confounding variable

from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • transitive v. To mingle and blend, so that different elements can not be distinguished; to confuse.
  • transitive v. To mistake for another; to identify falsely.
  • transitive v. To throw into confusion or disorder; to perplex; to strike with amazement; to dismay.
  • transitive v. To destroy; to ruin; to waste.

from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • To mingle confusedly together; mix indiscriminately, so that individuals, parts, or elements cannot be distinguished; throw into disorder; confuse.
  • To treat or regard erroneously as identical: mix or associate by mistake.
  • To throw into confusion; perplex with sudden disturbance, terror, or surprise; stupefy with amazement.
  • To destroy; bring to naught; overthrow; ruin; spoil.
  • Hence such interjectional phrases as confound it! confound the fellow! which are relics of the fuller imprecations, God confound it! God confound the fellow ! etc.
  • To waste or spend uselessly, as time.
  • Synonyms See list under confuse. Confuse, etc. See abash.

from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.

  • v. be confusing or perplexing to; cause to be unable to think clearly
  • v. mistake one thing for another


from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

Middle English confounden, from Anglo-Norman confundre, from Latin cōnfundere, to mix together, confuse : com-, com- + fundere, to pour; see gheu- in Indo-European roots.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

From Anglo-Norman cunfundre, from Old French confondre.


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