American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- n. A thin volatile essential oil, C10H16, obtained by steam distillation or other means from the wood or exudate of certain pine trees and used as a paint thinner, solvent, and medicinally as a liniment. Also called oil of turpentine, spirit of turpentine.
- n. The sticky mixture of resin and volatile oil from which turpentine is distilled.
- n. A brownish-yellow resinous liquid obtained from the terebinth.
- v. To apply turpentine to or mix turpentine with.
- v. To extract turpentine from (a tree).
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- To make or gather turpentine.
- n. An oleoresinous substance secreted by the wood or bark of a number of trees, all coniferous except the terebinth, which yields Chian turpentine. It consists chiefly of an essential hydrocarbon oil (C10H16) and a resin called
colophonyor rosin. The common turpentine is derived in France from the maritime pine, Pinus maritima (French or Bordeaux turpentine); in Russia and Germany, from the Scotch pine, P. sylvestris; in Austria and Corsica, from the Corsican pine, P. Laricio; in the East Indies and Japan, from several pines; and in the United States, most largely in North Carolina, from the southern or long-leafed pine, P. palustris, and somewhat from the loblollypine, P. Tæda. For other turpentines, see the phrases below. In the United States turpentine is obtained by cutting a pocket in the side of the tree (boxing), whence it is periodically collected. In France the less destructive method is practised of removing a piece of bark and conducting the flow into earthen vessels. The crude turpentine is subjected to distillation, separating the oil, or so-called spirit or spirits of turpentine, from the rosin—the oil in the case of the long-leafed pine constituting, it is said, 17 per cent., and in the case of the maritime pine 24 per cent. This when pure is limpid and colorless, of a penetrating peculiar odor, and a pungent bitterish taste. Spirit of turpentine is very extensively used in mixing paints and varnishes. In medicine it is stimulant and diuretic, an anthelmintic, and externally a rubefacient and counter-irritant.
- n. The oil or spirit of turpentine; turps: an ordinary but less precise use.
- To apply turpentine to; rub with turpentine.
- n. a volatile essential oil obtained from the wood of pine trees by steam distillation; it is a complex mixture of monoterpenes; it is used as a solvent and paint thinner
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. A semifluid or fluid oleoresin, primarily the exudation of the terebinth, or turpentine, tree (Pistacia Terebinthus), a native of the Mediterranean region. It is also obtained from many coniferous trees, especially species of pine, larch, and fir.
- n. volatile liquid distilled from turpentine oleoresin; used as paint thinner and solvent and medicinally
- n. obtained from conifers (especially pines)
- From Middle English turbentine, ultimately from Ancient Greek τερέβινθος (terébinthos, "terebinth tree"). (Wiktionary)
- Middle English, resin of the terebinth, from Old French terebentine, from Latin terebinthina (rēsīna), terebinth (resin), from Greek terebinthinē, feminine of terebenthinos, from terebinthos, terebinth tree. (American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
“We are dipped in turpentine, the film is wiped from our eyeballs, we really see what we are looking at (why do we rarely see?).”
“One reason, she spent weeks living in turpentine camps.”
“... on the easel, a rectangular canvas receives an inspired stroke ... in the air the smell of turpentine is thick enough to taste.”
“The turpentine is the product which passes off as vapor, and the rosin is the mass left in the boiler after the distillation of the turpentine.”
“The pine lands have not, so far, been so fully tested for agricultural purposes as any other general section of the State, the reason being that the pine timber was too valuable to be cut away and farming the turpentine was the most profitable pursuit.”
“-- A myrtaceous plant from Australia, called the turpentine tree, owing to its furnishing a fluid resembling that product.”
“The majority of what I have termed turpentine-farmers -- meaning the small proprietors of the long-leafed pine forest land, are people but a grade superior, in character or condition, to these vagabonds.”
“The trees, chiefly pines, are of large size, and afford abundance of turpentine, which is extracted from them, in great quantities, by the inhabitants.”
“Nor is the mention of balm or balsam, as carried by merchants, and sent as a present out of Judea by Jacob, to the governor of Egypt, Genesis 37: 25; 43: 11, to be alleged to the contrary, since what we there render balm or balsam, denotes rather that turpentine which we now call turpentine of Chio, or”
“A thinner such as turpentine might be added to the coloring particle-binder mixture to improve the consistency of the color during application; a characteristic of thinners was often rapid evaporation, which meant that it hastened drying time as well. reference Eighteenth-century writer-practitioners recommended their cautious use however, believing that they would cause colors to yellow as they aged.”
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