American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- n. A person owing loyalty to and entitled by birth or naturalization to the protection of a state or nation.
- n. A resident of a city or town, especially one entitled to vote and enjoy other privileges there.
- n. A civilian.
- n. A native, inhabitant, or denizen of a particular place: "We have learned to be citizens of the world, members of the human community” ( Franklin D. Roosevelt).
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A native of a city or town, or one who enjoys the freedom and privileges of the city or town in which he resides; a freeman of a city or town, as distinguished from a foreigner or one not entitled to its franchises.
- n. Any inhabitant of a city or town, as opposed to an inhabitant of a rural district; a townsman.
- n. In a restricted sense, a person engaged in trade, as opposed to a person of birth and breeding.
- n. A member of the state or nation; one bound to the state by the reciprocal obligation of allegiance on the one hand and protection on the other. Persons of the following classes are citizens of the United States: Persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power (except untaxed Indians). This includes children of alien parents other than those of foreign ambassadors, etc. Children born elsewhere to fathers who were, at the time of their birth, citizens at some time resident in the United States. Naturalized persons, including some in effect naturalized by treaty, etc. Women (though not born here nor naturalized) if not incapable of naturalization, and married to citizens, Freedmen under the act of emancipation. Indians born within the United States who have withdrawn from the tribal relation, entered civilized life, and are taxed. Indians who have accepted lands allotted in severalty under the Dawes Bill (1887); but there may be a question whether they practically become citizens before their reservation is thrown open. A person may be a citizen of the United States without being a citizen of any particular State, as, for instance, an inhabitant of the District of Columbia. The two citizenships are distinct in legal contemplation, although one is usually held by any person who holds the other; and practically, as a general rule, citizenship in a State consists of citizenship of the United States plus a domicile (that is, a fixed abode) in the State. The right to vote or hold office is not a test of citizenship, for minors and women are commonly citizens without those rights, and there are cases where alines may hold office.
- n. A private person, as opposed to a civil official or a soldier: as, a police officer in citizen's dress.
- Having the qualities of a citizen; town-bred; effeminate.
- n. A person that is legally recognized as a member of a state, with associated rights and obligations.
- n. dated A member of a state that is not a monarchy; used as antonym to subject.
- n. A person that is a legally recognized resident of a city or town.
- n. A resident of any particular place to which the subject feels to belong.
- n. A civilian, as opposed to a soldier, police officer etc.
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. One who enjoys the freedom and privileges of a city; a freeman of a city, as distinguished from a foreigner, or one not entitled to its franchises.
- n. An inhabitant of a city; a townsman.
- n. A person, native or naturalized, of either sex, who owes allegiance to a government, and is entitled to reciprocal protection from it.
- n. One who is domiciled in a country, and who is a citizen, though neither native nor naturalized, in such a sense that he takes his legal
statusfrom such country.
- adj. Having the condition or qualities of a citizen, or of citizens.
- adj. obsolete Of or pertaining to the inhabitants of a city; characteristic of citizens; effeminate; luxurious.
- n. a native or naturalized member of a state or other political community
- Anglo-Norman, from Old French citezein (spelling altered by influence of denizen), from Old French citeain (Modern French citoyen), from cite ("settlement (regardless of size), later meaning cathedral town") (Modern French cité, English city), from citet, from Latin civitas ("citizenship, community of citizens"), from civis ("townsman, citizen") (English civil, civilian), from Proto-Indo-European *kei- (“to lie, homestead”). (Wiktionary)
- Middle English citisein, from Anglo-Norman citesein, alteration (perhaps influenced by dainzain, denizen) of Old French citeain, from cite, city; see city. (American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
“This decision of the Supreme Court on the plea in abatement that the plaintiff (a Negro, Dred Scott) was not a citizen in the sense of the word in Article iii, Sec. 2 of the Constitution, was based upon an erroneous idea respecting the location of the word _citizen_ in the instrument.”
“The court say that, "to be a citizen it is necessary that he should be entitled to the enjoyment of these privileges and immunities, upon the same terms upon which they are conferred upon other citizens; and unless he is so entitled, _he cannot, in the proper sense of the term, be a citizen_.”
“In 1865 the legislature discriminated against women by the passage of a very long act, prescribing the manner in which enumerations of _white male citizens_ shall be made; thus implying that a _white male citizen_ is an honorable and important person, whose existence is to be noted with due care; with a care that distinguishes him equally above the _white female_ and the _black male_ citizen, and in effect places these two unenumerated divisions of human beings into one class.”
“The term "citizen journalism" has gained much attention since Twitter went live in 2006.”
“As Jeff says, the term citizen journalism has created an artificial divide that has hampered collaboration between traditional journalists and the public.”
““If you go to NowPublic, you will never ever see the term citizen journalism mentioned,” said Brody.”
“The term citizen is a legal one," Herbert pointed out.”
“The Americans do not plume themselves on the title citizen, but they work; they dispute little about words, but clear their lands; they do not talk of exterminating anybody, but they cover the sea with their ships, they construct immense canals, roads and steamers without jabbering at every stroke of the spade about the rights of man.”
“Similar references might be made to an indefinite extent, but enough has been said to show that the term citizen, in the language of Mr. Justice”
“There is not, it is believed, to be found in the theories of writers on government, or in any actual experiment heretofore tried, an exposition of the term citizen, which has not been considered as conferring the actual possession and enjoyment of the perfect right of acquisition and enjoyment of an entire equality of privileges, civil and political.”
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