Definitions

from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 5th Edition.

  • noun Something attached to another in a dependent or subordinate position. synonym: attachment.
  • noun A person associated with another in a subordinate or auxiliary capacity.
  • noun Grammar A clause or phrase added to a sentence that, while not essential to the sentence's structure, amplifies its meaning, such as for several hours in We waited for several hours.
  • noun Logic A nonessential attribute of a thing.
  • adjective Added or connected in a subordinate or auxiliary capacity.
  • adjective Attached to a faculty or staff in a temporary or auxiliary capacity.

from The Century Dictionary.

  • United with another (generally in a subordinate capacity) in office or in action of any kind: as, an adjunct professor. Added to or conjoined with, as a consequence; attending; accompanying.
  • noun Something added to another, but not essentially a part of it.
  • noun A person joined to another in some duty or service; an assistant or subordinate colleague.
  • noun In metaphysics, any quality of a thing not pertaining to its essence.
  • noun In grammar, a word or a number of words added to define, limit, or qualify the force of another word or other words; a word or phrase having value in a sentence only as dependent on another member of the sentence, as an adjective, an adverb, the words of a dependent clause, etc.
  • noun In music, a scale or key closely related to another; a relative scale or key.

from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English.

  • adjective Conjoined; attending; consequent.
  • adjective (Mus.) short notes between those essential to the harmony; auxiliary notes; passing notes.
  • noun Something joined or added to another thing, but not essentially a part of it.
  • noun A person joined to another in some duty or service; a colleague; an associate.
  • noun (Gram.) A word or words added to quality or amplify the force of other words.”
  • noun (Metaph.) A quality or property of the body or the mind, whether natural or acquired.
  • noun (Mus.) A key or scale closely related to another as principal; a relative or attendant key. [R.] See Attendant keys, under Attendant, a.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

  • noun An appendage; something attached to something else in a subordinate capacity.
  • noun A person associated with another, usually in a subordinate position; a colleague.
  • noun grammar A dispensable phrase in a clause or sentence that amplifies its meaning, such as "for a while" in "I typed for a while".
  • noun rhetoric Symploce.
  • noun dated, metaphysics A quality or property of the body or mind, whether natural or acquired, such as colour in the body or judgement in the mind.
  • noun music A key or scale closely related to another as principal; a relative or attendant key.
  • adjective Connected in a subordinate function.
  • adjective Added to a faculty or staff in a secondary position.

from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.

  • adjective of or relating to a person who is subordinate to another
  • adjective furnishing added support
  • noun a construction that can be used to extend the meaning of a word or phrase but is not one of the main constituents of a sentence
  • noun something added to another thing but not an essential part of it
  • noun a person who is an assistant or subordinate to another

Etymologies

from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

[From Latin adiūnctus, past participle of adiungere, to join to; see adjoin.]

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

From Latin adiunctus, perfect passive participle of adiungō ("join to"), from ad + iungō ("join").

Examples

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