"The seat of a bishop, whether an ordinary bishop, or a bishop of higher rank (metropolitan, etc., patriarch, pope); the local center of a diocese and of diocesan authority, or of a diocese and other subordinate dioceses; the city or locality from which ecclesiastical jurisdiction is exercised; hence, episcopal rank, authority, and jurisdiction as exercised from a permanent local center. The word see, from meaning any seat of dignity, came to apply specifically to the cathedra, or episcopal throne, situated in a cathedral, thence to the city which contained the cathedral and was the chief city of a bishop's diocese, and so in modern usage to the diocese itself. It differs from diocese, however, in that diocese represents the territorial province for the care of which the bishop is responsible (that is, where his duties lie), whereas see is the local seat of his authority, dignity, and episcopal privileges. Both words differ from bishopric, in that bishopric represents the bishop's office, whether actual or nominal. See throne."
I especially like the "See throne" bit. Does throne tell us to "See see?"
Plumbago was commonly used in its massive mineral form. Both of these names arise from confusion with the similar-appearing lead ores, particularly galena. The Latin word for lead is plumbum, which gave its name to both the English term for this grey metallic-sheened mineral and even the leadworts or plumbagos, plants with flowers that resemble this colour."
"The concept of phonons was introduced in 1932 by Russian physicist Igor Tamm. The name phonon comes from the Greek word φωνή (phonē), which translates as sound or voice because long-wavelength phonons give rise to sound."
"Lu thought that elements of New Yorker style were ridiculous; for instance, our habit of putting points in I.B.M. when I.B.M. itself had long since done without them, and of sticking a comma in Time, Inc., as if oblivious of the publisher’s own practice (and of the pun on “ink”). Yet there was no more zealous enforcer."
Here's a bit from that article: "Quoth the style book: “When alternatives are possible, use double ‘p’ in words like ‘kidnapped,’ double ‘s’ in words like ‘focussed,’ and double ‘l’ in words like ‘marvellous’ and ‘travelled.’” No kidnapper ever focussed so marvellously on this well-travelled territory."
"An illustration of how ultraviolet appears is provided by the Impressionist painter Claude Monet. Following cataract surgery in 1923, his colour palette changed significantly; after the operation he painted water lilies with more blue than before. This may be because after lens removal he could see ultraviolet light, which would have given a blue cast to the world."
"When the lens becomes opaque due to cataracts, it may be surgically removed, and can be replaced with an artificial lens. Even with the lens removed (a condition known as aphakia) the patient can still see, as the lens is only responsible for about 30% of the eyes' focusing power.
However, aphakic patients report that the process has an unusual side effect: they can see ultraviolet light. It is not normally visible because the lens blocks it. Some artificial lenses are also transparent to UV with the same effect. The receptors in the eye for blue light can actually see ultraviolet better than blue."
"Alum has been used at least since Roman times for purification of drinking water and industrial process water. Between 30 and 40 ppm of alum for household wastewater, often more for industrial wastewater, is added to the water so that the negatively charged colloidal particles clump together into "flocs", which then float to the top of the liquid, settle to the bottom of the liquid, or can be more easily filtered from the liquid, prior to further filtration and disinfection of the water."
"Historical natron was harvested directly as a salt mixture from dry lake beds in Ancient Egypt and has been used for thousands of years as a cleaning product for both the home and body. Blended with oil, it was an early form of soap. It softens water while removing oil and grease. Undiluted, natron was a cleanser for the teeth and an early mouthwash. The mineral was mixed into early antiseptics for wounds and minor cuts. Natron can be used to dry and preserve fish and meat. It was also an ancient household insecticide, was used for making leather and as a bleach for clothing.
The mineral was used in Egyptian mummification because it absorbs water and behaves as a drying agent. Moreover, when exposed to moisture the carbonate in natron increases pH (raises alkalinity), which creates a hostile environment for bacteria. In some cultures natron was thought to enhance spiritual safety for both the living and the dead. Natron was added to castor oil to make a smokeless fuel, which allowed Egyptian artisans to paint elaborate artworks inside ancient tombs without staining them with soot.
Natron is an ingredient for making a distinct color called Egyptian blue, and also as the flux in Egyptian faience. It was used along with sand and lime in ceramic and glass-making by the Romans and others at least until 640 AD. The mineral was also employed as a flux to solder precious metals together."
"n. A good fellow, in an emphatic sense: a term of admiration bestowed on one who on occasion or habitually shows in a modest way great or unexpected courage, kindness, or thoughtfulness, or other admirable qualities.
n. “In brief I don't stick to declare Father Dick, So they called him for short, was a regular brick; A metaphor taken, I have not the page aright, Out of an ethical work by the Stagyrite.”
n. Barham, Ingoldsby Legends, Brothers of Birchington."
-- Cent. Dict.
"Girdle books were small portable books worn by medieval European monks, clergymen and aristocratic nobles as a popular accessory to medieval costume, between the 13th and 16th centuries. They consisted of a book whose leather binding continued loose below the cover of the book in a long tapered tail with a large knot at the end which could be tucked into one's girdle or belt. The knot was usually strips of leather woven together for durability. The book hung upside down and backwards so that when swung upwards it was ready for reading. The books were normally religious: a cleric's daily Office, or for lay persons (especially women) a Book of Hours. One of the most well known texts to become a girdle book is Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy, although it is the only surviving philosophical/theological girdle book."
From the examples: “On the first occasion, Sir Ralph, a fireworks enthusiast, had been invited by Olivier and his house-proud future wife, Vivien Leigh, to celebrate her birthday at their bijoux London home.”
I've heard (probably in that Lynn Truss Eats, Shoots & Leaves book) that exclamation point is more common in America. I like saying exclamation mark because then it's more like question mark. But that could just be me being fussy.
"For years, lexicographers have pored over the term at the center of Supreme Court proceedings today, trying to tweak dictionary entries to reflect how all people use the word, regardless of their political persuasions. “Lexicographers end up in a no-win situation, where no matter what they do, somebody’s going to have trouble with the definition,” says Ben Zimmer, linguist and executive producer at Vocabulary.com.
Some dictionaries, like the historically ordered Merriam-Webster, have added a second definition for same-sex marriage and left the main entry referring to a man and a woman. Zimmer points out that some gay rights activists balk at that fix, however, feeling a second definition suggests that gay marriage is second class. Other references, like the American Heritage Dictionary, have wedged more information into a single definition: “The legal union of a man and woman as husband and wife, and in some jurisdictions, between two persons of the same sex, usually entailing legal obligations of each person to the other.”"
"n. The act of making brown. Specifically, the process of darkening the polished surfaces of gun-barrels and other metallic objects. Chlorid or butter of antimony, called bronzing-salt, is used in the process.
n. A preparation of sugar, port wine, spices, etc., for coloring and flavoring meat and made dishes.
n. In plastering, the second coat. The first coat, called the scratch coat, is generally deeply scored to receive and hold the browning.
n. In botany, the discoloration which takes place in vegetable cells when they are injured, as by cutting. It is probably due to chemical changes."
-- From the Century Dictionary entry over on Browning
"In mathematics, a Killing vector field (often just Killing field), named after Wilhelm Killing, is a vector field on a Riemannian manifold (or pseudo-Riemannian manifold) that preserves the metric. Killing fields are the infinitesimal generators of isometries; that is, flows generated by Killing fields are continuous isometries of the manifold. More simply, the flow generates a symmetry, in the sense that moving each point on an object the same distance in the direction of the Killing vector field will not distort distances on the object."
"A headache is called "thunderclap headache" if it is severe in character and reaches maximum severity within seconds to minutes of onset. In many cases, there are no other abnormalities, but the various causes of thunderclap headaches may lead to a number of neurological symptoms. The most important causes are subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and cervical artery dissection."
"So if recessionista and fembot are not really puns, what are they? They’re neolexic portmanteaus, in which root words are brutally slammed together with cavalier lack of wit. “Neolexic portmanteau” is a mouthful, so instead we shall choose a simpler handle. Sherry-manteau, catastrounity, misceg-formation, piss-poortmanteau, and poor-man’s-toes all proffer themselves as alternatives, but they are still laborsome. Therefore, I christen these neolexic portmanteaus adjoinages—a functioning portmanteau pun, in case you failed to see, on adjoin and coinage."
"A recent study finds that saltating sand particles induces a static electric field by friction. Saltating sand acquires a negative charge relative to the ground which in turn loosens more sand particles which then begin saltating. This process has been found to double the number of particles predicted by previous theory. This is significant in meteorology because it is primarily the saltation of sand particles which dislodges smaller dust particles into the atmosphere. Dust particles and other aerosols such as soot affect the amount of sunlight received by the atmosphere and earth, and are nuclei for condensation of the water vapour."
"To release or set free from union, attachment, or connection; detach; loosen or unfasten, and set free; release: as, to disengage a metal from its gangue, or a garment from a clinging bramble; to disengage the mind from study."
""Honestly, it does smell like there's a little bit of lavender in there," Zimmermann said. "I'm not sure if that was NASA-approved lavender, but it's definitely one of those things that we put there because it's a candle.""
I remember something from one of those brown-eye/blue-eye documentaries where one of the people in power was saying he didn't want to let the other group have power because "then they'll do the same thing to us." I don't think coming up with a new way to new group helps anyone. Not that the brown-eye/blue-eye thing wasn't without flaws, of course.
"In the mnemonic words of logic, the universal affirmative proposition, as, all men are mortal. Similarly, I stands for the particular affirmative, as, some men are mortal; E for the universal negative, as, no men are mortal; O for the particular negative, as, some men are not mortal. The use of these symbols dates from the thirteenth century; they appear to be arbitrary applications of the vowels a, e, i, o, but are usually supposed to have been taken from the Latin AffIrmo, I affirm, and nEgO, I deny. But some authorities maintain that their use in Greek is much older."
"In eccles. chanting, one of the seven forms of modulation used in parts sung by the officiating priest or his assistants, viz., the immutable, medium, grave, acute, moderate, interrogative, final. In music: A stress or emphasis given to certain notes or parts of bars in a composition. It is divided into two kinds, grammatical and rhetorical or esthetic. The first is perfectly regular in its occurrence, always falling on the first part of a bar; the esthetic accent is irregular, and depends on taste and feeling."
"In mathematics, a foliation is a geometric device used to study manifolds, consisting of an integrable subbundle of the tangent bundle. A foliation looks locally like a decomposition of the manifold as a union of parallel submanifolds of smaller dimension."
"With football's rapid growth in popularity in the late 19th century, several football clubs came into existence in Belgium. The first to register with the national association was R. Antwerp F.C.. They were subsequently assigned the matricule number 1 when the Royal Belgian Football Association gave a matricule number to each registered club in November 1926, by order of registration. Many matricule numbers no longer exist due to clubs ceasing to exist or merging with another club. When two (or more) clubs merge, they must choose which matricule number to keep."