American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- n. That which has mass and occupies space; matter.
- n. A material of a particular kind or constitution.
- n. Essential nature; essence.
- n. Gist; heart.
- n. That which is solid and practical in character, quality, or importance: a plan without substance.
- n. Density; body: Air has little substance.
- n. Material possessions; goods; wealth: a person of substance.
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. That which exists by itself, and in which accidents inhere; that which receives modifications, and is not itself a mode; that which corresponds, in the reality of things, to the subject in logic. Aristotle and Kant agree in making the conception of substance essentially the same as that of a subject of predication. But it is difficult to find a property by which substances may be recognized; for the above definition seems to afford none. Many philosophers hold that whatever is perdurable is substance. This, however, would include mechanical energy. Indeed, since every physical law can be stated in the form of an equation, and since that equation must have a constant term, it follows that every absolute uniformity of nature must consist in the perdurability of some quantity. Aristotle makes substances proper, called
first substances, to be things individual; but this comports with few philosophical systems. Thus, in the medieval development of Aristotelianism, scientific propositions were regarded as universal statements concerning natures, so that the true subjects, or substances, were universal. Moreover, to make individuality the criterion of substance would seem to make space, as the source of individuality, the only first substance. At any rate, under that view, spatial positions would be substances in a preëminent sense. Others, remarking that the parts of space are not distinct in themselves, apart from their relations to material things, make self-existence, or the being distinct from all other things, not by virtue of modifications or characters, but by the thing's own nature, or arbitrary extrusion of itself, to be the chief mark of a substance, which would thus be most simply defined as an independent entity. Substance and essence are nearly synonymous, except that the latter cannot appropriately be used to designate an individual and lifeless thing.
- n. The real or essential part; the essence.
- n. In theology, the divine being or essence, common to the three persons of the Trinity.
- n. The character of being a substance, in sense 1; substantiality.
- n. The meaning expressed by any speech or writing, or the purport of any action, as contradistinguished from the mode of expression or performance.
- n. Substantiation; that which establishes or gives firm support.
- n. Any particular kind of corporeal matter; stuff; material; part; body: specifically, a chemical species.
- n. Wealth; means; good estate: as, a man of substance.
- n. Importance.
- n. The main part; the majority.
- n. Synonyms Pith, gist, soul.
- To furnish with substance or property; enrich.
- n. Physical matter; material.
- n. The essential part of anything; the most vital part.
- n. Considerable wealth or resources.
- n. Drugs (illegal narcotics)
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. That which underlies all outward manifestations; substratum; the permanent subject or cause of phenomena, whether material or spiritual; that in which properties inhere; that which is real, in distinction from that which is apparent; the abiding part of any existence, in distinction from any accident; that which constitutes anything what it is; real or existing essence.
- n. The most important element in any existence; the characteristic and essential components of anything; the main part; essential import; purport.
- n. Body; matter; material of which a thing is made; hence, substantiality; solidity; firmness.
- n. Material possessions; estate; property; resources.
- n. (Theol.) Same as Hypostasis, 2.
- v. obsolete To furnish or endow with substance; to supply property to; to make rich.
- n. what a communication that is about something is about
- n. the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience
- n. considerable capital (wealth or income)
- n. a particular kind or species of matter with uniform properties
- n. material of a particular kind or constitution
- n. the real physical matter of which a person or thing consists
- n. the idea that is intended
- From Old French substance, from Latin substantia ("substance, essence"), from substāns, present active participle of substō ("exist; literally, stand under"), from sub + stō ("stand"). (Wiktionary)
- Middle English, from Old French, from Latin substantia, from substāns, substant-, present participle of substāre, to be present : sub-, sub- + stāre, to stand. (American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
“Between cells there is a greater or less amount of a homogeneous substance -- the _intercellular substance_.”
“_, (1) That the Deity created the substance of these shapes and forms from _Nothing_; or else (2) that he created them out of _his own substance_ -- out of Himself, in fact.”
“It frequently happens that the contortions or displacements due to motion are seen to affect a single line belonging to a particular substance, while the other lines of _that same substance_ remain imperturbable.”
“Beneath the endless diversity of the universe, of existence and action, there must be a principle of unity; below all fleeting appearances there must be a permanent substance; beyond this everlasting flow and change, this beginning and ending of finite existence, there must be an _eternal being_, the source and cause of all we see and know, _What is that principle of unity, that permanent substance_, or principle, or being?”
“They prove, too, that this is not merely true with one substance, as water, but generally with all electrolytic bodies; and, further, that the results obtained with any _one substance_ do not merely agree amongst themselves, but also with those obtained from _other substances_, the whole combining together into _one series of definite electro-chemical actions_ (505.).”
“And for precisely the same reason, when we find another class of properties and powers existing in certain beings, which are totally different from those belonging to mere material substances, -- incapable not only of being identified with them, but also of being accounted for by means of them, -- we are equally warranted in ascribing these properties to a _substance_, and in affirming that this substance, of which we know nothing except through its properties, is radically different from "matter.”
“It has been said by our opponents, that if we found merely on the acknowledged difference between two sets of properties or phenomena, while we admit that the substance or substratum is in itself entirely unknown to us, or known only through the medium of the properties to which we refer, -- then the dispute becomes a purely _verbal_ one, and can amount to nothing more than this, whether a _substance_ of whose essence we are entirely ignorant should be called by the name of "matter" or by the name of "spirit.”
“a finer substance, and our body is rebuilt and fashioned from the indestructible _substance_ of the Universe.”
“Lab Rat tagged me with the "blogging with substance" meme, which I think constitutes a tagging FAIL since I would hesitate to use the term substance as a ...”
“Cooperation on what we call substance, that is the resolution of the remaining disarmament issues, in my view, has been less good.”
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GRE , GMAT , TOEFL , IELTS , SAT 。。。
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