from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition
- n. A fold or a folding back.
- n. A reply to an answer; a rejoinder.
- n. Law The plaintiff's response to the defendant's answer or plea.
- n. An echo or reverberation.
- n. A copy or reproduction.
- n. The act or process of duplicating or reproducing something.
- n. Biology The process by which genetic material, a single-celled organism, or a virus reproduces or makes a copy of itself: replication of DNA.
- n. In scientific research, the repetition of an experiment to confirm findings or to ensure accuracy.
from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
- n. Process by which an object, person, place or idea may be copied mimicked or reproduced.
- n. Copy; reproduction.
- n. A response from the plaintiff to the defendant's plea.
from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English
- n. An answer; a reply.
- n. The reply of the plaintiff, in matters of fact, to the defendant's plea.
- n. Return or repercussion, as of sound; echo.
- n. A repetition; a copy.
- n. The copying, by enzymes, of a cell's genome, i.e. the DNA or RNA comprising its genetic material, so as to form an identical genome. This is an essential step in the division of one cell into two. This differs from
transcription, which is the copying of only part of the genetic information of a cell's genome into RNA, as in the processes of biosynthesis of messenger RNA or ribosomal RNA.
from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. An answer; a reply.
- n. In law, the third step in the pleadings in a common-law action or bill in equity, being the reply of the plaintiff or complainant to the defendant's plea or answer.
- n. Return or repercussion of sound.
- n. In logic, the assuming or using of the same term twice in the same proposition.
- n. Repetition; hence, a copy; a portrait.
- n. A repeated folding or bending back of a surface.
- n. In music, the repetition of a tone at a higher or lower octave, or a combination of replicates together.
from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
- n. a quick reply to a question or remark (especially a witty or critical one)
- n. (genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
- n. the repetition of a sound resulting from reflection of the sound waves
- n. copy that is not the original; something that has been copied
- n. the act of making copies
- n. (law) a pleading made by a plaintiff in reply to the defendant's plea or answer
- n. the repetition of an experiment in order to test the validity of its conclusion
Sorry, no etymologies found.
You have failed to show that biological replication is an undirected chemical process.
Due to the stochasticity in replication and compartment fission the best compartment types recur.
ID guy: And if you want to say the replication is undirected then you have to show the origin was also undirected.
ID guy: You have failed to show that biological replication is an undirected chemical process.
And if you want to say the replication is undirected then you have to show the origin was also undirected.
As biological replication is a chemical process, and as we can show that replicators can produce large amounts of functionally specified information, that contradicts one of the two pillars of his argument.
The engineer would need to have comprehensive knowledge of the available material resources (amino acids, proteins, molecules involved in replication, etc.), the risks and benefits of various self-replication means, the potential environment (s) the first cell is to be placed in, and probably more than what's coming to mind right now.
Supposing that replication is preserved, you then still have a replicating molecule.
Prebiotic replication is chemically more limited than reproduction based on the genetic code and decoding+construction mechanisms.
I've pointed out that Before Language (B.L.) replication is constrained to physically copying according an accessible template.