American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- n. Something false or empty that is purported to be genuine; a spurious imitation.
- n. The quality of deceitfulness; empty pretense.
- n. One who assumes a false character; an impostor: "He a man! Hell! He was a hollow sham!” ( Joseph Conrad).
- n. A decorative cover made to simulate an article of household linen and used over or in place of it: a pillow sham.
- adj. Not genuine; fake: sham diamonds; sham modesty.
- v. To put on the false appearance of; feign: "shamming insanity to get his tormentors to leave him alone” ( John Wain).
- v. To assume a false appearance or character; dissemble.
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. Shame; disgrace; fault.
- n. A trick put upon one; a trick or device that deludes or disappoints expectation; fraud; imposture; make-believe; humbug: as, an age of shams.
- n. Some device meant to give a thing a different outward appearance, as of neatness and finish, or to imitate something which it is not. Specifically A false shirt-front; a dicky.
- n. A false pillow-cover; a pillow-sham.
- n. A strip of fine linen, often embroidered, put under the upper edge of the bed-coverings and turned over, as if forming the upper end of the sheet.
- n. plural Gaiters.
- False; counterfeit; pretended: as, a sham fight.
- Synonyms Mock, spurious, make-believe.
- To deceive; trick; cheat; delude with false pretenses.
- To obtrude by fraud or imposition.
- To make a pretense of in order to deceive; feign; imitate: as, to sham illness.
- To pretend; make false pretenses; pretend to be, do, etc., what one is not, does not, does not mean, etc.
- adj. Intended to deceive; false.
- n. A fake; an imitation that purports to be genuine.
- n. Trickery, hoaxing.
- n. A decorative cover for a pillow.
- v. To deceive, cheat, lie.
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. That which deceives expectation; any trick, fraud, or device that deludes and disappoints; a make-believe; delusion; imposture; humbug.
- n. A false front, or removable ornamental covering.
- adj. False; counterfeit; pretended; feigned; unreal.
- v. To trick; to cheat; to deceive or delude with false pretenses.
- v. rare To obtrude by fraud or imposition.
- v. To assume the manner and character of; to imitate; to ape; to feign.
- v. To make false pretenses; to deceive; to feign; to impose.
- v. make believe with the intent to deceive
- adj. adopted in order to deceive
- v. make a pretence of
- n. a person who makes deceitful pretenses
- n. something that is a counterfeit; not what it seems to be
- Probably a dialectal form of shame. (Wiktionary)
- Perhaps dialectal variant of shame. (American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
“Instead of this, we either put on a stock with a sham tie, (now all _sham_ things, of what kind soever, militate against good taste,) or else, to make the most of our scarf, we fill up the aperture of the waistcoat with an ambitious quantity of drapery, and we stick therein an enormous and obtrusively ostentatious pin.”
“The term sham derives from the root shameful I believe.”
“Also on Sunday, the Taliban vowed to attack polling places in Sept. 18 parliamentary elections, warning Afghans not to participate in what it called a sham vote.”
“I care deeply about the people of Zimbabwe, I am extremely disappointed in the election, which I labelled a sham election," Bush said with Tanzania President Jakaya Kikwete, the current chairman of the AU.”
“I care deeply about the people of Zimbabwe, I am extremely disappointed in the election, which I labelled a sham election," Bush said on the sidelines of a summit of rich nations at this mountain resort in northern Japan.”
“I'm extremely disappointed in the elections, which I labelled a sham election," he said.”
“Additional comments in the P-I story reveal what a sham is the rubric of "diversity" at UW and in Seattle.”
“PHILLIPS: Saddam Hussein, angry over what he calls a sham of a trial, boycotts today's proceedings in Baghdad.”
“Kaunda said he would organize a campaign of strikes, demonstrations and civil disobedience against what he termed sham elections that would lack legitimacy without his main opposition group taking part.”
“Associated Press Writers = KABUL, Afghanistan (AP) - The Taliban vowed Sunday to attack polling places in Sept. 18 parliamentary elections, warning Afghans not to participate in what it called a sham vote.”
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