American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- n. The act of depressing.
- n. The condition of being depressed.
- n. An area that is sunk below its surroundings; a hollow.
- n. The condition of feeling sad or despondent.
- n. Psychology A psychiatric disorder characterized by an inability to concentrate, insomnia, loss of appetite, anhedonia, feelings of extreme sadness, guilt, helplessness and hopelessness, and thoughts of death. Also called clinical depression.
- n. A reduction in activity or force.
- n. A reduction in physiological vigor or activity: a depression in respiration.
- n. A lowering in amount, degree, or position.
- n. Economics A period of drastic decline in a national or international economy, characterized by decreasing business activity, falling prices, and unemployment.
- n. Economics The worldwide economic depression from the late 1920s through the 1930s. In the United States, it began with the stock market crash in October, 1929.
- n. Meteorology A region of low barometric pressure.
- n. The angular distance below the horizontal plane through the point of observation.
- n. Astronomy The angular distance of a celestial body below the horizon.
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. The act of pressing down, or the state of being pressed down. Specifically
- n. In astronomy: The sinking of the polar star toward the horizon, as the observer recedes from the pole toward the equator
- n. In gunnery, the lowering of the muzzle of a gun, corresponding to the raising of the breech.
- n. In surgery, a kind of couching.
- n. In music, the lowering or flatting of a tone: denoted in printed music by a ♭, or, after a ♯, by a ♯.
- n. A hollow; a sinking or falling in of a surface; a forcing inward: as, roughness consisting in little protuberances and depressions; the depression of the skull.
- n. Figuratively, the act of lowering or abasing: as, the depression of pride.
- n. A sinking of the spirits; dejection; a state of sadness; want of courage or animation: as, depression of the mind.
- n. A low state of strength; physical exhaustion.
- n. A state of dullness or inactivity: as, depression of trade; commercial depression.
- n. Humiliation, fall.
- n. Melancholy, despondency.
- n. The difference between the low barometric pressure and the normal pressure for that locality; the departure of the pressure.
- n. geography an area that is lower in topography than its surroundings
- n. psychology in psychotherapy and psychiatry, a state of mind producing serious, long-term lowering of enjoyment of life or inability to visualize a happy future
- n. psychology in psychotherapy and psychiatry, a period of unhappiness or low morale which lasts longer than several weeks and may include ideation of self-inflicted injury or suicide
- n. meteorology an area of lowered air pressure that generally brings moist weather, sometimes promoting hurricanes and tornadoes
- n. economics a period of major economic contraction;
- n. economics, US Four consecutive quarters of negative, real GDP growth. See NBER.
- n. biology, physiology a lowering, in particular a reduction in a particular biological variable or the function of an organ, in contrast to elevation
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. The act of depressing.
- n. The state of being depressed; a sinking.
- n. A falling in of the surface; a sinking below its true place; a cavity or hollow.
- n. Humiliation; abasement, as of pride.
- n. Dejection; despondency; lowness.
- n. Diminution, as of trade, etc.; inactivity; dullness.
- n. (Astron.) The angular distance of a celestial object below the horizon.
- n. (Math.) The operation of reducing to a lower degree; -- said of equations.
- n. (Surg.) A method of operating for cataract; couching. See Couch, v. t., 8.
- n. a period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment
- n. an air mass of lower pressure; often brings precipitation
- n. a state of depression and anhedonia so severe as to require clinical intervention
- n. pushing down
- n. a sunken or depressed geological formation
- n. a long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment
- n. a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity
- n. a concavity in a surface produced by pressing
- n. angular distance below the horizon (especially of a celestial object)
- n. sad feelings of gloom and inadequacy
- From Latin depressio. (Wiktionary)
“If she took on too much, if she became overly excited, she could tumble into a state of despair for which the term "depression" seems rather mild.”
“In fact, the word depression has virtually replaced unhappiness in our internal vocabularies.”
“One cold shower and two cold beers later: stress, and its darker cousin depression, is a serious problem in Japan, I feel, but not one that is very well understood.”
“Just as the NBER does not define the term depression or identify depressions, there is no formal NBER definition or dating of the Great Depression," the bureau's website says.”
“After World War II, the term depression lapsed into disuse, because economic downturns became milder and rarely involved general deflation (price declines).”
“I had never heard of the word depression when I was a child.”
“We all throw around the word depression with the same nonchalance with which we get a cup of coffee.”
“When serving in the Carter administration, Kahn was chastised for even using the word depression in public.”
“The Economist have suggested that the term depression is conventionally applied to a decline in real GDP that exceeds 10\%, or one that lasts more than three years.”
“↑ The editors of the British journal The Economist have suggested that the term depression is conventionally applied to a decline in real GDP that exceeds 10\%, or one that lasts more than three years.”
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