American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- n. The evidence or argument that compels the mind to accept an assertion as true.
- n. The validation of a proposition by application of specified rules, as of induction or deduction, to assumptions, axioms, and sequentially derived conclusions.
- n. A statement or argument used in such a validation.
- n. Convincing or persuasive demonstration: was asked for proof of his identity; an employment history that was proof of her dependability.
- n. The state of being convinced or persuaded by consideration of evidence.
- n. Determination of the quality of something by testing; trial: put one's beliefs to the proof.
- n. Law The result or effect of evidence; the establishment or denial of a fact by evidence.
- n. The alcoholic strength of a liquor, expressed by a number that is twice the percentage by volume of alcohol present.
- n. Printing A trial sheet of printed material that is made to be checked and corrected. Also called proof sheet.
- n. Printing A trial impression of a plate, stone, or block taken at any of various stages in engraving.
- n. A trial photographic print.
- n. Any of a limited number of newly minted coins or medals struck as specimens and for collectors from a new die on a polished planchet.
- n. Archaic Proven impenetrability: "I was clothed in Armor of proof” ( John Bunyan).
- adj. Fully or successfully resistant; impervious. Often used in combination: waterproof watches; a fireproof cellar door.
- adj. Of standard alcoholic strength.
- adj. Used in proving or making corrections.
- v. Printing To make a trial impression of (printed or engraved matter).
- v. Printing To proofread (copy).
- v. To activate (dormant dry yeast) by adding water.
- v. To work (dough) into proper lightness.
- v. To treat so as to make resistant: proof a fabric against shrinkage.
- v. Printing To proofread.
- v. To become properly light for cooking: The batter proofed overnight.
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. Any effort, act, or operation made for the purpose of ascertaining any truth or fact; a test; a trial: as, to make proof of a person's trustworthiness or courage.
- n. Evidence and argumentation putting the conclusion beyond reasonable doubt; demonstration, perfect or imperfect.
- n. A thing proved or tried; truth or knowledge gathered by experience; experience.
- n. The state of having been tested and approved; firmness, hardness, or impenetrability: specifically applied to arms or armor of defense, to note that they have been duly tested and are impenetrable.
- n. In law: The convincing effect of evidence; the manifestation of the truth of a proposition by presenting the reasons for assenting to it; such an array of evidence as should determine the judgment of the tribunal in regard to a matter of fact. In criminal cases, to be effectual as proof, the evidence must satisfy beyond a reasonable doubt. In civil cases it is enough that the evidence preponderates.
- n. plural In equity practice, the instruments of evidence in their documentary form, as depositions, deeds, etc., received in a cause.
- n. The presentation of sufficient evidence: as, the burden of proof lies with the plaintiff. Proof is either written or parole. The former consists of records, deeds, or other writings; the latter of the testimony of witnesses personally appearing in court or before a proper officer, and, as a rule, sworn to the truth of what they depose. In this sense the word is used to designate either the task of going forward with the giving of evidence at the trial or the task of satisfying the minds of the jury. Owing to the different functions of the judge and the jury, the distinction is of great practical importance, because when the plaintiff has given evidence which would entitle him if unanswered to go to the jury, it is proper for him to tell counsel that the burden of proof is on defendant, meaning that if the defendant adduces no evidence the plaintiff will be entitled to have the case submitted to the jury; but it is error for him thereupon, whether defendant offers evidence or not, to tell the jury that the burden of proof is on defendant to contradict plaintiff's case, for, considered as a task of satisfying the jury, the burden of proof remains upon the plaintiff throughout. The burden of proof is never on the defendant in this sense, except in respect to an affirmative defense in avoidance as distinguished from a denial.
- n. In Scots law, the taking of evidence by a judge upon an issue framed in pleading. Sometimes disputed facts may be sent to a jury, but, except in actions of damages, a proof is almost invariably the course adopted. … The evidence as the proof is taken down in shorthand, and counsel are heard at the close.
- n. A test applied to manufactured articles or to natural substances prepared for use; hence, the state of that which has undergone this test, or is capable of undergoing it satisfactorily. Compare armor of proof.
- n. 7. In alcoholic liquors, the degree of strength which gives a specific gravity of 0.920. See II., 2. Liquors lighter than this are said to be above proof, and heavier liquors are below proof. See
- n. In printing, a trial impression from composed type, taken for correction. Generally a number of successive proofs are read before the matter is ready for the press, corrections being made first in the printing-office until what is technically called a clean proof can be submitted to the author. The final proof is called a press-proof or a foundry-proof, the first being used of letterpress work, and the latter of plate-work.
- n. In engraving and etching, an impression taken from an engraved plate to show its state during the progress of executing it; also, an early and superior impression, or one of a limited number, taken before the title or inscription is engraved on the plate, and known as proof before letter. There may be first, second, and third proofs, marking successive states of the work. See also artist's proof, India proof, proof with open letters, and proof with remarque, below.
- n. In numismatics, any early impression struck at the mint from a coin-die used for producing the current coins of the realm. Proofs are often distinguished from the coins struck off for actual currency by having their edges left plain instead of being milled or inscribed. They are also often struck in a metal of greater or less value than that which is proper to the current coin: thus, there are gold, silver, and bronze proofs of the English copper farthing issued by George III. in 1799. Compare
- n. In bookbinding, the rough uncut edges of the shorter leaves of a trimmed book, which prove that the book has not been cut down too much.
- n. In arithmetic, an operation serving to check the accuracy of the calculation.
- n. Proof independent of experience.
- n. Synonyms Experiment, essay, ordeal.
- n. Testimony, etc. (see evidence and inference), demonstration, certification.
- Impenetrable; able to resist, physically or morally: as, water-proof, fire-proof, shot-proof, bribe-proof: often followed by to or against before the thing resisted.
- Noting alcoholic liquors which have the specific gravity 0.91984, usually considered as 0.920, which is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. Such spirits contain 0.495 of their weight, or 0.5727 of their volume, of absolute alcohol. The strength is usually determined by a hydrometer. See alcoholometry, overproof, and underproof.
- Of excellent quality: said of land.
- n. An assay of a bullion of known composition placed in the muffle with the other assays in order to determine the difference in weight due to the loss of silver by volatilization and absorption by the cupel.
- n. In photography, a trial print from a negative.
- n. countable An effort, process, or operation designed to establish or discover a fact or truth; an act of testing; a test; a trial.
- n. uncountable The degree of evidence which convinces the mind of any truth or fact, and produces belief; a test by facts or arguments which induce, or tend to induce, certainty of the judgment; conclusive evidence; demonstration.
- n. The quality or state of having been proved or tried; firmness or hardness which resists impression, or doesn't yield to force; impenetrability of physical bodies.
- n. obsolete Experience of something.
- n. uncountable, obsolete Firmness of mind; stability not to be shaken.
- n. countable, printing A proof sheet; a trial impression, as from type, taken for correction or examination.
- n. countable, logic, mathematics A sequence of statements consisting of axioms, assumptions, statements already demonstrated in another proof, and statements that logically follow from previous statements in the sequence, and which concludes with a statement that is the object of the proof.
- n. countable, mathematics A process for testing the accuracy of an operation performed. Compare prove, transitive verb, 5.
- n. obsolete Armour of excellent or tried quality, and deemed impenetrable; properly, armour of proof.
- n. US A measure of the alcohol content of liquor. Originally, in Britain, 100 proof was defined as 57.1% by volume (not used anymore). In the US, 100 proof means that the alcohol content is 50% of the total volume of the liquid, and thus, absolute alcohol would be 200 proof.
- adj. Used in proving or testing.
- adj. Firm or successful in resisting.
- adj. Being of a certain standard as to alcohol content.
- v. transitive, intransitive, colloquial To proofread.
- v. transitive To make resistant, especially to water.
- v. transitive To knead, as in bread dough.
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. Any effort, process, or operation designed to establish or discover a fact or truth; an act of testing; a test; a trial.
- n. That degree of evidence which convinces the mind of any truth or fact, and produces belief; a test by facts or arguments that induce, or tend to induce, certainty of the judgment; conclusive evidence; demonstration.
- n. The quality or state of having been proved or tried; firmness or hardness that resists impression, or does not yield to force; impenetrability of physical bodies.
- n. Firmness of mind; stability not to be shaken.
- n. (Print.) A trial impression, as from type, taken for correction or examination; -- called also
- n. (Math.) A process for testing the accuracy of an operation performed. Cf. Prove, v. t., 5.
- n. obsolete Armor of excellent or tried quality, and deemed impenetrable; properly,
armor of proof.
- adj. Used in proving or testing.
- adj. Firm or successful in resisting
- adj. Being of a certain standard as to strength; -- said of alcoholic liquors.
- n. a measure of alcoholic strength expressed as an integer twice the percentage of alcohol present (by volume)
- n. a trial photographic print from a negative
- n. (printing) an impression made to check for errors
- n. any factual evidence that helps to establish the truth of something
- v. make resistant (to harm)
- n. a formal series of statements showing that if one thing is true something else necessarily follows from it
- v. make or take a proof of, such as a photographic negative, an etching, or typeset
- adj. (used in combination or as a suffix) able to withstand
- v. read for errors
- v. activate by mixing with water and sometimes sugar or milk
- n. the act of validating; finding or testing the truth of something
- v. knead to reach proper lightness
- From Middle English proof, from Old French prove, from Late Latin proba ("a proof"), from Latin probare ("to prove"); see prove. (Wiktionary)
- Middle English prove, preve, from Anglo-Norman prove and from Old French prueve, both from Late Latin proba, from Latin probāre, to prove; see prove. (American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
“That is so funny about your selecting the squirrel proof feeder, and I can agree, some are more *proof* than others!”
“However, when it comes to attempting to understand the deep structure of classical proof systems (and in particular, when two derivations that differ in some superficial syntactic way are really different ways to represent the one underlying ˜proof™) it is enlightening to think of classical logic as formed by a basic substructural logic, in which extra structural rules are imposed as additions.”
“ An apparently intact hymen is valued in some cultures as proof of virginity in a bride; this proof, however, is not accurate.”
“A proof taken of the whole galley at once is called a _galley proof_.”
“Here, then, we are told that proof of the occasional transmission of mutilations would be sufficient to establish the fact, but on p. 267 we find that no single fact is known which really proves that acquired characters can be transmitted, "_for the ascertained facts which seem to point to the transmission of artificially produced diseases cannot be considered as proof_" [Italics mine.]”
“But I say, by authority of the Master, that _the highest proof, the absolute proof, the perfect proof_, of the FACTS as to _who God is, and what he does_, and the”
“The strength of spirit stronger than _proof_ or _over proof_, as it is termed by the revenue officers, is indicated by the bulk of water necessary to reduce a given volume of it, to the legal standard spirit, denominated _proof_ -- namely; if one gallon of water be required to bring twenty gallons of brandy, rum, or any other spirit, to proof, that spirit is said to be _1 to 20 over proof_.”
A Treatise on Adulterations of Food, and Culinary Poisons Exhibiting the Fraudulent Sophistications of Bread, Beer, Wine, Spiritous Liquors, Tea, Coffee, Cream, Confectionery, Vinegar, Mustard, Pepper, Cheese, Olive Oil, Pickles, and Other Articles Employed in Domestic Economy
“No experimental proof has hitherto been obtained that stimulation of the cerebral organs lying above the vaso-motor centre, and which include those possessing the function of thought, ever paralyzes this centre; but, as it is only by such paralysis that cerebral conditions can induce dilatation of blood-vessels, it must follow that no _experimental proof_ at present exists that stimulation of the brain ever does cause such dilatation -- that is, ever does become a cause of hæmorrhage.”
“The proof of this lies in the words _ex ou_ just below; not _ex ôn_ (_ouranôn_) but _ex ou_ (_politeumatos_): I can find _no proof_ of the assertion (Moulton's”
“I. i.217 (15,1) in strong proof] In chastity _of proof_, as we say in armour _of proof_.”
These user-created lists contain the word ‘proof’.
Unabashedly stolen from a comment made by courier12.
I've noticed many, many words start with PRO and this is just a collection of them.
Legal glossary with special focus on courtroom vocabulary
Words related to bread and bread-making
My big word list.
Very basic words for ESL students.
Terms used in coin collecting.
Looking for tweets for proof.