American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
- n. A domesticated carnivorous mammal (Canis familiaris) related to the foxes and wolves and raised in a wide variety of breeds.
- n. Any of various carnivorous mammals of the family Canidae, such as the dingo.
- n. A male animal of the family Canidae, especially of the fox or a domesticated breed.
- n. Any of various other animals, such as the prairie dog.
- n. Informal A person: You won, you lucky dog.
- n. Informal A person regarded as contemptible: You stole my watch, you dog.
- n. Slang A person regarded as unattractive or uninteresting.
- n. Slang Something of inferior or low quality: "The President had read the speech to some of his friends and they told him it was a dog” ( John P. Roche).
- n. Slang An investment that produces a low return or a loss.
- n. Slang The feet.
- n. See andiron.
- n. Slang A hot dog; a wiener.
- n. Any of various hooked or U-shaped metallic devices used for gripping or holding heavy objects.
- n. Astronomy A sun dog.
- adv. Totally; completely. Often used in combination: dog-tired.
- v. To track or trail persistently: "A stranger then is still dogging us” ( Arthur Conan Doyle).
- v. To hold or fasten with a mechanical device: "Watertight doors and hatches were dropped into place and dogged down to give the ship full watertight integrity” ( Tom Clancy).
- idiom. dog it Slang To fail to expend the effort needed to do or accomplish something.
- idiom. go to the dogs To go to ruin; degenerate.
- idiom. put on the dog Informal To make an ostentatious display of elegance, wealth, or culture.
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
- n. A quadruped of the genus Canis, C. familiaris. The origin of the dog is a question most difficult of solution. Some think the breed is derived from the wolf, others affirm it to be from a familiarized jackal; all agree that no trace of it is to be found in a primitive state, the dhole of India and the dingo of Australia being wild descendants from domesticated ancestors. The view now generally taken by naturalists is that the dog is neither a species, in the zoölogical sense, nor even the descendant of any one species modified by domestication, but that the dogs of different parts of the world have a correspondingly various ancestry, from different wild species of the genus Canis, as wolves, foxes, and jackals. This view is supported not only by the enormous differences between dogs, but also by the readiness with which nearly all dogs cross with their wild relatives; and, accordingly, the name Canis familiaris is a conventional rather than a proper zoölogical designation of the dog as a species. No satisfactory classification of the different kinds of dogs has been arrived at, what some naturalists regard as types being regarded by others as mere mongrels. An old classification grouped dogs in three classes, the Celeres, Sagaces, and Pugnaces. Colonel Hamilton Smith groups the domestic dog into six sections: the wolf-dogs, including the Siberian, Eskimo, Newfoundland, Great St. Bernard, sheep-dog, etc.; watch- and cattle-dogs, including the German boar-hound, Danish dog, dog of the North American Indians, etc.; the greyhounds, as the different kinds of greyhound, Irish hound, lurcher, Egyptian street-dog, etc.; the hounds, as the bloodhound, staghound, foxhound, harrier, beagle, pointer, setter, spaniel, springer, cocker, Blenheim dog, poodle, etc.; the curs, including the terrier and its allies; the mastiffs, including the different kinds of mastiff, bulldog, pug-dog, etc. All these are artificial varieties, having comparatively little stability, their distinctive characters being soon lost by reversion to a more generalized type if they are left to interbreed. This tendency to reversion requires to be constantly counteracted by “artificial selection” at the hands of breeders, in order that the several strains may be kept pure, and their peculiarities be perpetuated along the desired lines of specialization. The best-bred dogs, of whatever kind, are those furthest removed from an original or common type of structure. The differences between dogs of all kinds are vastly greater than those found among individuals of any species in a state of nature; so great that, were they not known to be artificial, the dog would represent several different genera of the family Canidœ in ordinary zoological classification. In fact, some genera, based upon actual and constant differences in the dental formula, have been named in order to signalize certain structural modifications which are found to exist, affording an example of the evolution of generic characters as well as of specific differences. These variations extend not only to size and general configuration, character of the pelage, and other outward features, but also to positive osteological and dental peculiarities, more marked probably than those of any other domesticated animals. The corresponding physiological and psychological differences are equally decided, as witnessed in the dispositions and temperaments of dogs, their comparative docility, intelligence, etc., and consequently the uses to which they are or may be put. In the matter of size alone, for example, some toy dogs are tiny enough to stand easily on one of the fore paws of a large dog. Throughout the endless varieties, however, the influence of heredity is witnessed in the readiness with which dogs interbreed with one another, and cross with wolves, foxes, and jackals, bearing fertile progeny in all cases, and the readiness with which they revert to the wild state of their several ancestors. See the names of the several breeds. See also
- n. In distinguishing sex, a male dog, as opposed to bitch; hence sometimes used in composition for the male of other animals, as in dog-fox, dog-ape.
- n. plural Canine quadrupeds in general; the family Canidœ (which see).
- n. The prairie-dog.
- n. The dogfish.
- n. A mean, worthless fellow; a currish or sneaking scoundrel: applied in reproach or contempt.
- n. A gay or rakish man, especially if young; a sport or gallant: applied, usually with an epithet (young, impudent, etc.), in mild or humorous reprobation.
- n. In astronomy: [capitalized] One of two ancient constellations lying south of the zodiac, known as Canis Major and Canis Minor. See Canis.
- n. The dog-star.
- n. A name of various mechanical devices, tools, and pieces of machinery. plural Andirons: specifically called
- n. Same as dog-head, 1.
- n. A sort of iron hook or bar, with one or more sharp fangs or claws at one end, which may be fastened into a piece of wood or other heavy article, for the purpose of moving it: used with various specific prefixes, See cut.
- n. An iron with fangs for fastening a log in a saw-pit or on the carriage of a saw-mill.
- n. Any part of a machine acting as a claw or clutch, as the carrier of a lathe, or an adjustable stop to change the motion of a machine-tool.
- n. plural The set-screws which adjust the bed-tool of a punching-press.
- n. A grappling-iron which lifts the monkey or hammer of a pile-driver.
- n. A click or pallet to restrain the back-action of a ratchet-wheel by engaging the teeth; a pawl.
- n. plural In ship-building, the final supports which are knocked aside when a ship is launched; a dogshore.
- n. In a lock, a tooth, projection, tusk, or jag which acts as a detent.
- n. A grab used to grasp well-tubes or -tools, to withdraw them from bored, drilled, or driven wells.
- n. plural Nippers used in wire-drawing. They resemble carpenters' strong pincers or pliers, and are sometimes closed by a sliding ring at the end of the strap or chain which slides down the handles of the nippers.
- n. The painted hyena or cynhyene. See Lycaon.
- To follow like a dog; follow with or as with dogs, as in hunting with dogs; hunt; follow pertinaciously or maliciously; keep at the heels of; worry with importunity: as, to dog deer; to dog a person's footsteps.
- To fasten, as a log by means of a dog (see dog, n., 9 ), for sawing.
- Nautical, to grip, as a rope, to a spar or cable so that the parts bind on each other, to prevent slipping, and causing it to cling.
- n. A short, heavy piece of steel, bent and pointed at one end and with an eye or ring at the other. It is used for many purposes in logging, and is sometimes so shaped that a blow directly against the line of draft will loosen it. Also called tail-hook.
- n. In agriculture, an implement for dragging brush, roots, and poles out of the ground; a brush-puller.
- n. A mammal, Canis lupus familiaris, of the genus Canis that has been domesticated for thousands of years, of highly variable appearance due to human breeding.
- n. A male dog, wolf or fox, as opposed to a bitch (a female dog, wolf or fox).
- n. derogatory A dull, unattractive girl or woman.
- n. slang A man.
- n. slang, derogatory A coward
- n. derogatory Someone who is morally reprehensible.
- n. Any of various mechanical devices for holding, gripping, or fastening something, particularly with a tooth-like projection.
- n. this sense?) A click or pallet adapted to engage the teeth of a ratchet-wheel, to restrain the back action; a click or pawl. (See also: ratchet, windlass)
- n. A metal support for logs in a fireplace.
- n. A hot dog.
- n. poker slang Underdog
- n. slang feet.
- v. transitive To pursue with the intent to catch.
- v. transitive To follow in an annoying way, to constantly be affected by.
- v. transitive, nautical To fasten a hatch securely.
- v. intransitive To watch, or participate, in sexual activity in a public place, on the pretence of walking the dog; see also dogging.
- v. intransitive, transitive To intentionally restrict one's productivity as employee; to work at the slowest rate that goes unpunished.
- v. intransitive To position oneself on all fours, after the manner of a dog.
GNU Webster's 1913
- n. (Zoöl.) A quadruped of the genus Canis, esp. the domestic dog (Canis familiaris).
- n. A mean, worthless fellow; a wretch.
- n. colloq. A fellow; -- used humorously or contemptuously
- n. (Astron.) One of the two constellations,
Canis Majorand Canis Minor, or the Greater Dog and the Lesser Dog. Canis Majorcontains the Dog Star (Sirius).
- n. An iron for holding wood in a fireplace; a firedog; an andiron.
- n. A grappling iron, with a claw or claws, for fastening into wood or other heavy articles, for the purpose of raising or moving them.
- n. An iron with fangs fastening a log in a saw pit, or on the carriage of a sawmill.
- n. A piece in machinery acting as a catch or clutch; especially, the carrier of a lathe, also, an adjustable stop to change motion, as in a machine tool.
- n. slang an ugly or crude person, especially an ugly woman.
- n. slang a hot dog.
- v. To hunt or track like a hound; to follow insidiously or indefatigably; to chase with a dog or dogs; to worry, as if by dogs; to hound with importunity.
- n. metal supports for logs in a fireplace
- v. go after with the intent to catch
- n. a dull unattractive unpleasant girl or woman
- n. someone who is morally reprehensible
- n. a member of the genus Canis (probably descended from the common wolf) that has been domesticated by man since prehistoric times; occurs in many breeds
- n. a hinged catch that fits into a notch of a ratchet to move a wheel forward or prevent it from moving backward
- n. informal term for a man
- n. a smooth-textured sausage of minced beef or pork usually smoked; often served on a bread roll
- From Middle English dogge, from Old English docga ("hound, powerful breed of dog"), a pet-form diminutive of Old English *docce (“muscle”) (found in compound fingerdocce ("finger-muscle") with suffix -ga (compare frocga ("frog"), picga ("pig")), from Proto-Germanic *dukkōn (“power, strength, muscle”). More at dock. In the 16th century, it superseded Old English hund and was adopted by many continental European languages. (Wiktionary)
- Middle English dogge, from Old English docga. (American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
“To illustrate, consider a sentence like ˜A dog barked™, and suppose that ˜dog™ denotes the set X,”
“For example, in ˜Every dog is a mammal™, both ˜dog™ and ˜mammal™ have personal supposition.”
“We had a dog, true it was a different one, a ferocious dog ”
“At the present time, there is not a concert or an opera at Darmstadt to which Mr. S---- and his wonderful dog are not invited; or, at least, _the dog_.”
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“Well, no,' admitted Sykes; 'I see plenty of pieces, but I guess that dog _as a dog_, ain't of much account.”
“This is the reason the term dog days of August was invented," said Hollywood.com analyst Paul Dergarabedian.”
“The term "dog days" was coined by the ancient Romans, who called these hot and humid days caniculares dies or "days of the dogs" after the star Sirius -- Canis Majoris, the "Greater Dog," which is one of the hunting dogs of Orion.”
“He is demonstrating abstract thinking when he assigns the word dog to what is clearly not a real dog.”
“When an interviewee pronounces the word dog as “dawg,” it is permissible in the more informal sections of the paper to render it as pronounced.”
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