Definitions

from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition

  • adj. Being near in space or time. See Usage Note at redundancy.
  • adj. Being near in relationship: close relatives.
  • adj. Bound by mutual interests, loyalties, or affections; intimate: close friends.
  • adj. Having little or no space between elements or parts; tight and compact: a close weave.
  • adj. Being near the surface; short: a close haircut.
  • adj. Being on the brink of: close to tears.
  • adj. Decided by a narrow margin; almost even: a close election.
  • adj. Faithful to the original: a close copy.
  • adj. Rigorous; thorough: close attention; close supervision.
  • adj. Shut; closed.
  • adj. Shut in; enclosed.
  • adj. Confining or narrow; crowded: close quarters.
  • adj. Fitting tightly: close garments.
  • adj. Lacking fresh air; stuffy: a close room.
  • adj. Confined to specific persons or groups: a close secret.
  • adj. Strictly confined or guarded: kept under close custody.
  • adj. Hidden from view; secluded.
  • adj. Secretive; reticent: was close about her personal life.
  • adj. Giving or spending with reluctance; stingy.
  • adj. Not easily acquired; scarce: Money was close.
  • adj. Linguistics Pronounced with the tongue near the palate, as the ee in meet. Used of vowels.
  • adj. Marked by more rather than less punctuation, especially commas.
  • transitive v. To move (a door, for example) so that an opening or passage is covered or obstructed; shut.
  • transitive v. To bar access to: closed the road for repairs.
  • transitive v. To fill or stop up: closed the cracks with plaster.
  • transitive v. To stop the operations of permanently or temporarily: closed down the factory.
  • transitive v. To make unavailable for use: closed the area to development; closed the database to further changes.
  • transitive v. To bring to an end; terminate: close a letter; close a bank account.
  • transitive v. To bring together all the elements or parts of: Management closed ranks and ostracized the troublemaker.
  • transitive v. To join or unite; bring into contact: close a circuit.
  • transitive v. To draw or bind together the edges of: close a wound.
  • transitive v. Sports To modify (one's stance), as in baseball or golf, by turning the body so that the forward shoulder and foot are closer to the intended point of impact with the ball.
  • transitive v. To complete the final details or negotiations on: close a deal.
  • transitive v. Archaic To enclose on all sides.
  • intransitive v. To become shut: The door closed quietly.
  • intransitive v. To come to an end; finish: The book closes on a hopeful note.
  • intransitive v. To reach an agreement; come to terms.
  • intransitive v. To cease operation: The shop closes at six.
  • intransitive v. To be priced or listed at a specified amount when trading ends: Stocks closed higher on Monday.
  • intransitive v. To engage at close quarters: closed with the enemy.
  • intransitive v. To draw near: The orbiter closed with the space station in preparation for docking.
  • intransitive v. To come together: My arms closed around the little child.
  • intransitive v. Baseball To finish a game by protecting a lead. Used of relief pitchers.
  • n. The act of closing.
  • n. A conclusion; a finish: The meeting came to a close.
  • n. Music The concluding part of a phrase or theme; a cadence.
  • n. An enclosed place, especially land surrounding or beside a cathedral or other building.
  • n. Chiefly British A narrow way or alley.
  • n. Archaic A fight at close quarters.
  • adv. In a close position or manner; closely: stayed close together.
  • close in To seem to be gathering in on all sides: The problems closed in.
  • close in To advance on a target so as to block escape: The police closed in on the sniper.
  • close in To surround so as to make unusable: The airport was closed in by fog.
  • close out To dispose of (a line of merchandise) at reduced prices.
  • close out To terminate, as by selling: close out a business.
  • idiom close to home So as to affect one's feelings or interests: Her comment hit close to home.
  • idiom close to the wind Nautical At a close angle into the direction from which the wind is blowing: sailing close to the wind.

from Wiktionary, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License

  • adj. Closed, shut.
  • adj. At a little distance; near.
  • adj. Intimate; well-loved.
  • adj. hot, humid, with no wind.
  • adj. articulated with the tongue body relatively close to the hard palate
  • n. An enclosed field.
  • n. A street that ends in a dead end.
  • n. A very narrow alley between two buildings, often overhung by one of the buildings above the ground floor.
  • n. A cathedral close.
  • v. To obstruct (an opening).
  • v. To move so that an opening is closed.
  • v. To put an end to.
  • v. To make (e.g. a gap) smaller.
  • v. To have a vector sum of 0; that is, to form a closed polygon.
  • v. To make a sale.
  • v. To make the final outs, usually three, of a game.
  • v. To terminate a computer program or a window or file thereof.
  • n. An end of something.

from the GNU version of the Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • adj. Shut fast; closed; tight.
  • adj. Narrow; confined.
  • adj. Oppressive; without motion or ventilation; causing a feeling of lassitude; -- said of the air, weather, etc.
  • adj. Strictly confined; carefully quarded.
  • adj. Out of the way observation; secluded; secret; hidden.
  • adj. Disposed to keep secrets; secretive; reticent.
  • adj. Having the parts near each other; dense; solid; compact; as applied to bodies; viscous; tenacious; not volatile, as applied to liquids.
  • adj. Concise; to the point.
  • adj. Adjoining; near; either in space; time, or thought; -- often followed by to.
  • adj. Short.
  • adj. Intimate; familiar; confidential.
  • adj. Nearly equal; almost evenly balanced.
  • adj. Difficult to obtain.
  • adj. Parsimonious; stingy.
  • adj. Adhering strictly to a standard or original; exact; strict.
  • adj. Accurate; careful; precise; also, attentive; undeviating; strict; not wandering.
  • adj. Uttered with a relatively contracted opening of the mouth, as certain sounds of e and o in French, Italian, and German; -- opposed to open.
  • adv. In a close manner.
  • adv. Secretly; darkly.
  • n. The manner of shutting; the union of parts; junction.
  • n. Conclusion; cessation; ending; end.
  • n. A grapple in wrestling.
  • n.
  • n. The conclusion of a strain of music; cadence.
  • n. A double bar marking the end.
  • n. An inclosed place; especially, a small field or piece of land surrounded by a wall, hedge, or fence of any kind; -- specifically, the precinct of a cathedral or abbey.
  • n. A narrow passage leading from a street to a court, and the houses within.
  • n. The interest which one may have in a piece of ground, even though it is not inclosed.
  • intransitive v. To come together; to unite or coalesce, as the parts of a wound, or parts separated.
  • intransitive v. To end, terminate, or come to a period.
  • intransitive v. To grapple; to engage in hand-to-hand fight.
  • transitive v. To stop, or fill up, as an opening; to shut.
  • transitive v. To bring together the parts of; to consolidate.
  • transitive v. To bring to an end or period; to conclude; to complete; to finish; to end; to consummate.
  • transitive v. To come or gather around; to inclose; to encompass; to confine.

from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia

  • To inclose; shut in; surround; comprise.
  • To make close; bring together the parts of, especially so as to form a complete inclosure, or to prevent ingress or egress; shut; bring together: as, to close one's mouth; to close a door or a room; to close a book.
  • To stop (up); fill (up); repair a gap, opening, or fracture in; unite; consolidate: often followed by up: as, to close an aperture or a room; to close or close up the ranks of troops.
  • To end; finish; conclude; complete; bring to a period: as, to close a bargain or contract; to close a lecture.
  • To draw near to; approach; close with (which see, under II.).
  • In shoemaking, to sew or stitch together (the parts of the upper).
  • To settle up an account.
  • To come together, either literally or figuratively; fall; draw; gather around, as a curtain or a fog: often followed by on or upon: as, the shades of night close upon us.
  • To end; terminate or come to a period: as, the debate closed at six o'clock.
  • To engage in close encounter, or in a hand-to-hand fight; grapple; come to close quarters.
  • In the game of sixty-six, to turn down the trump-card before the pack is exhausted, so that no further drawing can be done.
  • In fencing, to get near enough to touch by making a step forward without deranging the position of the body.
  • To come to an agreement with: as, to close with a person on certain terms.
  • See II., 3.
  • To harmonize; agree.
  • Completely inclosing; brought together so as to leave no opening; having all openings covered or drawn together; confined; having no vent: as, a close box; a close vizor.
  • Narrowly confined; pent up; imprisoned; strictly watched: as, a close prisoner.
  • Retired; secluded; hidden.
  • Kept secret; private; secret.
  • Having the habit of secrecy or a disposition to keep secrets; secretive; reticent.
  • Having an appearance of concealment; expressive of secretiveness or reticence.
  • Having little openness, space, or breadth; contracted; narrow; confined: as, a close alley.
  • Stagnant; without motion or ventilation; difficult to breathe; oppressive: said of the air or weather, and of a room the air in which is in this condition.
  • Near together in space or time; near to; in contact or nearly so; adjoining: as, a close row of trees; to follow in close succession.
  • Having the parts near each other or separated by only a small interval; condensed: as, the writing is too close.
  • Near, in a figurative sense.
  • Resting upon some strong uniting feeling, as love, self-interest, honor, etc.; strong; firm: as, a close union of individuals or of nations.
  • Undeviating; not wandering.
  • Strictly logical: as, close reasoning.
  • Stingy; niggardly; penurious.
  • Scarce; difficult to get: as, money is close.
  • Tightly or closely; so as to leave no opening: as, shut the blinds close.
  • In strict confinement.
  • In concealment; in hiding; in secret; secretly.
  • Near in space or time; in contact, or nearly touching: as, to follow close behind one.
  • In cribbage, noting cards which are near together, so that sequences are possible, such as the 5 and 7.
  • Formed or pronounced with a partial closing of the lips: as, a close vowel.
  • n. The manner of shutting; junction; coming together.
  • n. Conclusion; termination; end: as, the close of life; the close of deliberations.
  • n. In music, the conclusion of a strain or of a musical period or passage; a cadence.
  • n. A grapple, as in wrestling.
  • n. An inclosed place; any place surrounded by a fence, wall, or hedge.
  • n. A piece of land held as private property, whether actually inclosed or not: in the common law of pleading, technically used of any interest (whether temporary or permanent, or even only in profits) in the soil, exclusive of other persons, such as entitles him who holds it to maintain an action of trespass against an invader.
  • n. Specifically, the precinct of a cathedral or an abbey; a minster-yard.
  • n. A narrow passage or entrance, such as leads from a main street to the stair of a building containing several tenements; the entry to a court; a narrow lane leading from a street: as, a close in Marylebone.

from WordNet 3.0 Copyright 2006 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.

  • adj. (of a contest or contestants) evenly matched
  • v. come to a close
  • n. the last section of a communication
  • adj. used of hair or haircuts
  • v. cause a window or an application to disappear on a computer desktop
  • adj. marked by fidelity to an original
  • adj. fitting closely but comfortably
  • v. become closed
  • adv. near in time or place or relationship
  • v. finish or terminate (meetings, speeches, etc.)
  • adj. rigorously attentive; strict and thorough
  • adj. strictly confined or guarded
  • v. unite or bring into contact or bring together the edges of
  • n. the concluding part of any performance
  • adj. at or within a short distance in space or time or having elements near each other
  • adj. inclined to secrecy or reticence about divulging information
  • v. move so that an opening or passage is obstructed; make shut
  • v. change one's body stance so that the forward shoulder and foot are closer to the intended point of impact
  • adj. not far distant in time or space or degree or circumstances
  • v. cease to operate or cause to cease operating
  • v. bar access to
  • v. come together, as if in an embrace
  • v. draw near
  • v. engage at close quarters
  • v. be priced or listed when trading stops
  • n. the temporal end; the concluding time
  • adj. lacking fresh air
  • adj. crowded
  • v. complete a business deal, negotiation, or an agreement
  • adj. giving or spending with reluctance
  • adj. close in relevance or relationship
  • adj. of textiles
  • v. finish a game in baseball by protecting a lead
  • adj. confined to specific persons
  • adv. in an attentive manner
  • v. bring together all the elements or parts of
  • v. fill or stop up

Etymologies

Middle English clos, closed, from Old French, from Latin clausus, past participle of claudere, to close. V., from Middle English closen, from Old French clore, clos-, from Latin claudere.
(American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition)
From Middle English closen ("to close, enclose"), partly continuing (in altered form) earlier Middle English clusen ("to close"; from Old English clȳsan ("to close, shut"); compare beclose, forclose, etc.); and partly derived from the Middle English adjective clos ("close, shut up, confined, secret"), from Old French clos ("close, confined", adjective), from Latin clausus ("shut up", past participle), from claudere ("to bar, block, close, enclose, bring an end to, confine"), from Proto-Indo-European *klāw- (“key, hook, nail”), related to Latin clāvis ("key, deadbolt, bar"), clāvus ("nail, peg"), claustrum ("bar, bolt, barrier"), claustra ("dam, wall, barricade, stronghold"). Cognate with Ancient Greek κλείς ("bar, bolt, key"), German schließen ("to close, conclude, lock"), Dutch sluiten ("to close, conclude, lock"). Replaced Old English lūcan ("to close, lock, enclose"). (Wiktionary)
From French clos, from Latin clausum, participle of claudo. (Wiktionary)

Examples

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  • See near.

    September 5, 2010

  • Contronymic in the sense: near vs. make inaccessible.

    January 27, 2007